A bubble is formed when a layer of water molecules is trapped between two layers of soap molecules. Each soap molecule is positioned so one side faces the water, while the other faces away.
No matter what shape a bubble creates when its first blown, it eventually forms a sphere to minimise the surface area of the structure. This shape uses the least energy to form.
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Glycerin, C3H5(OH)3, is used to extend the life of a bubble by forming hydrogen bonds with water, slowing down how quickly it evaporates.
When a bubble is blown, the air inside it is warmed by the air in the blower’s lungs.
As this warm air hits the cold air, it contracts to set the surface of a bubble.
In extreme temperatures, this water layer freezes first, followed by the soap layer - making the walls of the bubble more structurally sound and visible.