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International Space Agencies Are Going to Smash a Spacecraft Into an Asteroid

Space agencies are going to smash a spacecraft into an asteroid

The time has come to smash a spacecraft into an asteroid to test the Earth’s defence capability.

The joint spacecraft mission known as the Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), will consult with specialists coming together from the United States Space Agency, NASA, and the European Space Agency (ESA).

The target asteroid is Didymos B, the smaller in the Didymos binary system. The spacecraft is the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) of NASA. The main reason behind this is to test whether an impact on a spaceship can deflect the trajectory of an asteroid as a means of protecting Earth from hazardous space rocks.

“It is important that Europe plays a leading role in AIDA, an innovative mission that was originally developed by the ESA research back in 2003, remarked Ian Carnelli from ESA.

“An international effort is an appropriate way forward and, the planetary defence is in everyone’s interest,” he further added.

There are currently 850 “near-Earth asteroids” (NEAs) on ESA’s list and over 18,000 known “near-Earth objects” (NEOs), as per the reports of the agency.

Impacts of small space rocks with Earth are comparatively common, and although more substantial consequences are rarer, they can cause catastrophic damage.

The impact of an asteroid collision on Earth depends on many factors, such as the position and location of impact, and the physical properties of the asteroid.

While we have the technology available with us to mitigate such a threat from an asteroid, it has never been tested in sensible conditions.

Researchers are examining the viability of diverting an asteroid by crashing a spacecraft to see if the technique is a feasible planetary defence method.

One of two Didymos double asteroids between Earth and Mars is under consideration, which they aim to deflect the orbit of using one spacecraft’s effect.

A second observation craft will examine the site of the crash and collect information on the impact of the collision.

NASA is providing the Double Asteroid Impact Test (DART) spacecraft, which is all set to collide with its target in September 2022 at a speed of at 6.6 km/s. It is already under development.

An Italian-made miniature CubeSat called LICIACube will record the moment of impact.

ESA will launch a Hera probe in October 2024 to study the target asteroid post-impact.

The results and observations of Hera will allow researchers to transform the experiment into a technique that could be repeated were there a real threat.

Researcher’s produce synthetic hall effect

Researcher’s produce synthetic hall effect

Researchers at the Urbana-Champaign’s University of Illinois replicated one of physics’ most well-known electromagnetic effects, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electrical current (electrons). Their method could be used to produce sophisticated communication schemes that increase signal transmission in one direction while absorbing signals in the opposite direction at the same time.


Edwin Hall found the Hall Effect in 1879 due to the interaction between charged particles and electromagnetic fields. In an electrical area, negatively charged particles (electrons) experience a force contrary to the field direction. Moving electrons in a magnetic field experience a force perpendicular to both their movement and the magnetic field in the course. In the Hall Effect, where perpendicular electrical and magnetic fields combine to produce an electrical current, these two forces merge. Light is not loaded, so it is not possible to use periodic electrical and magnetic fields to provide an equivalent “current of light.”

Researchers such as Gaurav Bahl have been efficiently working on numerous methods to improve radio and optical data transmission combined with fiber optic communication.

The team used the interaction between light and sound waves earlier this year to suppress the dispersion of light from material defects and released its outcomes in Optica. In 2018, team member Christopher Peterson was the lead author in a document on Science Advances, explaining a technology that promises to halve the communications bandwidth by enabling an antenna to simultaneously send and receive signals on the same frequency through a method called nonreciprocal coupling.

Researcher’s produce synthetic hall effect

(Credits: University of Illinois)

By developing a specially constructed circuit to improve the interaction between these synthesized areas and radio waves, the team used the Hall Effect principle to increase radio signals in one direction, increase their power, while also stopping and absorbing messages in the other. Their tests showed that with the correct mixture of synthetic areas, signals could be transferred as efficiently in one direction as in the opposite direction through the loop more than 1000-times. Their study could be used to create new equipment that safeguards radio wave sources from possibly damaging interference or help guarantee delicate mechanical quantities.

The team is also operating on experiments that continue the concept to other kinds of waves, including light and mechanical vibrations, as they look to establish a new class of devices based on applying the Hall Effect outside of its original domain.

Journal Reference: Physical Review Letter

Researchers discover the Massive Neutron Star

Researchers discover the Massive Neutron Star

Researchers at West Virginia University have helped identify the most massive neutron star to date, and it is considered to be a breakthrough uncovered through the Green Bank Telescope in Pocahontas County.

According to a document released in Nature Astronomy on Monday, a team of astronomers has now effectively recognized the massive neutron star on record. The star, called J0740 + 6620, is 2.14 times as large as the Sun, measuring approximately 15 miles in diameter.

The neutron star, which is called as J0740 + 6620, is a fast-spinning pulsar that carries 2.17 times the Sun’s mass (which is 333,000 times the Earth’s mass) across a sphere of just 20-30 kilometers or about 15 miles. This measurement approaches the boundaries that a single object can become large and compact without crushing itself into a black hole.

The discovery is important because the maximum possible mass for neutron stars has yet to be identified by scientists. J0740 + 6620 is probably close to this threshold, which means it can shed light on the mysterious inner dynamics of neutron stars and give insight into the deaths and afterlife of massive stars.

The new mass detection “is interesting because it informs our understanding of how supernovae form neutron stars (and how massive the progenitor stars must be),” stated lead author Thankful Cromartie, a graduate student in astronomy at the University of Virginia.

neuron star


“To consider for neutron stars that are born extremely massive, we need to refine our models of stellar evolution and supernovae explosions,” she mentioned.

J0740+6620 is a pulsar, a particular type of neutron star that emits luminous beams of radiation out of its magnetic poles. Since these poles happen to be oriented toward Earth, scientists can discern it regularly blinking like a cosmic lighthouse, even though it is located 4,600 light-years away.

Because of their interactions with their companion white dwarf, the researchers were able to calculate the mass of the pulsar. As the two objects orbit each other, their immense gravity distorts the surrounding space that distorts the bright pulses emitted by J0740 + 6620.

Authors on the paper include Duncan Lorimer, an astronomy professor and Eberly College of Arts and Sciences associate dean for research; Eberly Distinguished Professor of Physics and Astronomy Maura McLaughlin; Nate Garver-Daniels, a system administrator in the Department of Physics and Astronomy; and postdocs and former students named Harsha Blumer, Paul Brook, Pete Gentile, Megan Jones and Michael Lam.

The discovery is one of many surprising results, McLaughlin said. She added that they have emerged during conventional observations taken as part of a search for gravitational waves.

The team used this exact time delay to estimate the mass of the white dwarf, which in turn enabled them to calculate the mass of the pulsar. The research unveiled that J0740+6620 is the most significant neutron star known to scientists.

The results “serve as a strong validation of the existence of high-mass neutron stars,” the team inferred in the paper. “Even small increases in the measured mass of the most massive neutron stars force a reconsideration of the underlying physics at play in their centers.

Regularly Feasting Black Hole

Astronomers Discover Supermassive Black Hole with Strict Feeding Schedule

Every day we are getting introduced with magnificent spectacles of the universe. Just a few months ago scientists captured a first-ever actual image of a black hole which proved the physical presence of black holes. Just as the world was hoarding over this impeccable achievement, a few days ago lead author of ESA Center for Astrobiology, Spain, Giovanni Miniutti made an announcement that a team of astronomers discovered a supermassive black hole, located 250 million light-years ahead of Earth with the mass of approximately 400,000 times that of the sun. While this can prove to be a stepping stone in the field of space exploration, it is a terrifying discovery because this supermassive black hole is regularly feasting at the interval of 9 hours.

Astronomers made the use of ESA’s XMM-Newton and NASA’s Chandra X-ray space observatory to find this supermassive black hole. The discovery of supermassive black hole isn’t that astounding because in the past, two such flaring supermassive black holes have been already discovered but the thing that sets this one apart, in particular, is that it is regular in its schedule and such kind of thing wasn’t observed in previous cases.

Black holes have a property that they tend to sparkle up via X-Rays whenever they are being fed and these sparkles were observed in every 9 hours by astronomers with the use of equipment in assigned laboratories. If we size up the amount of mass that this supermassive black hole is feasting then it would be equivalent to about 4 moons for every interval of 9 hours. Giovanni Miniutti stated that “This black hole is on a meal plan like we’ve never seen before.”

This concern is probably an indication that there are still some frightening things out there lurking in the space which are beyond man’s reach. Though this ultimate discovery can be a pivotal step in getting more information over black holes, in general, it still has caused a sense of uncertainty among the authorities involved in space research because there is a possibility that black holes portraying similar characteristics might just be within our galaxy.

It is still not known what actually caused this sparkle up. The intensity of these sparks was 20 times more while feeding compared to what was observed in normal instances which is what actually led to this ultimate discovery. Researchers have proposed many theories explaining the possible reason for this phenomenon to occur. Margherita Guistini who is co-author at ESA said that “We think the origin of the X-ray emission is a star that the black hole has partially or completely torn apart and is slowly consuming bit by bit.”

Though, this doesn’t completely satisfy the cause of phenomenon because this feeding is being observed for every 9 hours constantly. All of this boils down to the fact that our walls of intelligence haven’t reached the mark where we can apply theoretical methods to find the solution. There is still a long way to go for humanity to strive in this endless universe.

Journal: arxiv

Renewable technology harnesses electricity from the darkness

Renewable technology harnesses electricity from the darkness

In economies around the globe, solar power is increasing at breakneck velocity and is already cheaper than the average wholesale price of electricity. This is encouraging considering the emergency of our climate.

However, the thing about solar energy is that it operates only when the sun is up. But at night, though in comparatively minute quantities, it is also feasible to draw power.

Researchers show an innovative tool in recent research that harnesses the distinction in temperature between radiative bodies and the night atmosphere. The power was sufficient to switch on a tiny LED light, making it appropriate for distant location apps and just about anywhere that requires some power at night.

“Remarkably, the device can generate electricity at night, when solar cells don’t work,” says lead author Aaswath Raman, who works as an assistant professor of materials science and engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles.

electricity from the cold dark night

So how exactly is all of this possible?

Solar cells produce electricity by absorbing photons through a semiconducting material that releases electrons collected on the back of the cell by electrodes fitted. When there is no sunlight, it is still possible to use solar power by storing it for subsequent use in batteries.

Batteries, however, can be costly, so it doesn’t make sense to employ them in specific applications, such as in very remote neighborhoods where you only need a bit of electricity to control some sensors, antennas, or small lights.

Rather than harnessing photons, the researchers exploited radiative cooling, the process by which a body loses heat by thermal radiation. Any sky-facing surface will lose heat to the atmosphere, shooting thermal radiation into space, eventually approaching a cooler temperature than the surrounding air. This is why, for example, you will see frost form on vegetation during any cold nights, even though the temperature outside is above water’s freezing point. By controlling this temperature difference, it is possible to generate electricity.

Raman and collaborators, including Stanford University scientists, tested a machine under a clear December sky that harnesses radiative cooling on a rooftop. The low-cost device comprises of a polystyrene enclosure covered in very lightweight aluminized mylar that minimizes the quantity of escaping thermal radiation.

The device was then placed on a desk one meter right above the surface, drawing heat from the surrounding air and releasing it into the night’s sky through a black emitter.

When the thermoelectric module was connected to a voltage boost converter, it was effectively capable of turning on a low-power white LED. Over six hours, the researchers estimated the power output of 25 milliwatts per square meter.

For illustration, a typical solar cell will generate about 150 watts per square meter in peak conditions, almost 10,000 more than the thermal radiative cooling device.

Raman says that the amount of electricity that can be generated per unit area during the night can be primarily increased by order of magnitude with some upgrades. And since it is made from elementary components that can be purchased off the shelf, the researchers understand there are many applications for which their device can find practical use. It can, for instance, operate in scorching, dry climates and could also act as a radiative cooling component.

Journal Reference: Joule

k2-18b water discovery

Water discovered on an exoplanet

In a fascinating discovery, astronomers found water in a planet’s atmosphere orbiting a far-flung star outside our solar system with Earth-like temperatures that could sustain life. This exoplanet is almost 110 light-years away from our world, and the discovery of water is rather exciting.

According to the research released in the journal Nature Astronomy, K2-18b is eight times the Earth’s mass. It is now the only exoplanet known to have water and temperatures possibly inhabitable. Unlike other giant exoplanets where atmospheric water has been detected, K2-18b could be rocky and rugged like Earth, Venus, and Mars.

Researchers said the planet orbits the cool dwarf star K2-18, which is in the Leo constellation.

“Finding water in a potentially habitable world other than Earth is incredibly compelling,” remarked author Angelos Tsiaras from the University College London (UCL) in the UK.

“K2-18b is not’ Earth 2.0′ as it is significantly heavier and has a different atmospheric composition. However, it brings us closer to answering the fundamental question: Is the Earth unique?” adds Tsiaras.

K2-18b was discovered in 2015. Since then, it has been researched on, and it was a bit of a tricky exoplanet to explore. We understand this rounds up quite carefully around a red dwarf star named K2-18, completing the round every 33 days. Furthermore, the stellar rates of radiation on the planet are comparable to those on Earth (except for the elevated flare activity typical of red dwarfs).

We also understand that the planet’s size is about twice as large as the earth, and about eight times the mass. Astronomers have even reduced the planet to two kinds. In 2017, a team concluded, either a rocky, atmospheric planet like Earth but more massive, or a world with a mostly watery interior covered by a dense ice shell, like Enceladus or Europa.

Kepler space telescope which used to identify planets using the transit method recognized this planet. This is possible when the star, planet and earth are in the same line. The light coming from the star is monitored and when the planet passes in between star and earth (transit), we can see a dip in star’s light. This can give us a lot of data.

It can also support us in studying the atmosphere of a planet. If the light from the star moves through specific wavelengths, certain gasses can absorb them, thus, creating a range of lines. These can be decided by comparing a spectral star profile with a spectral transit profile.

It isn’t simple, however. Even the first detection of the planet needs extremely delicate instruments to detect starry dips, as well as remarkably faint spectral absorption lines.

Tsiaras and his team used the WFC3 device on the Hubble space telescope. They pictured eight transits of the planet in front of the star, bringing them together to generate a weighted average, thereby producing the planet’s spectral profile.

After this, they had to understand what the spectral star profile conveyed through modeling.

Originally, they ran K2-18b atmosphere models with a range of atmospheric molecules that could produce absorption lines, comprising water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3).

In the planet’s spectrum, only water could be recognized with confidence. Keeping this in mind, the team developed their analysis, now using water solely as a trace gas.

They then formed the atmosphere by applying three different approaches: cloudless, with water vapor in a hydrogen-helium atmosphere; cloudless, with water vapour, hydrogen-helium, and molecular nitrogen; and then cloudy, with water vapour and hydrogen-helium.

All three simulations produced a statistically notable atmosphere at high-resolution levels, with values so similar they couldn’t quite distinguish the three basic types.

We need a lot more data to confirm things and probably the next-generation space telescopes like James Webb telescope might clarify things

Journal Reference: Water vapour in the atmosphere of the habitable-zone eight-Earth-mass planet K2-18 b

For the first time, astronauts manufacture cement in space for future Mars and Moon colonies

For the first time, astronauts manufacture cement in space for future Mars and Moon colonies

According to new research, human beings can create habitats on the moon and Mars, thanks to concrete which is manufactured in space. Astronauts on the International Space Station have created cement for the first time in microgravity, successfully demonstrating that it can develop and harden in space. The study appears in the Frontiers in Materials journal. 

For construction purposes, concrete is a reliable building material. It is a mixture of rocks, sand and a combination of cement and water. As per the new study, it could also protect the astronauts from cosmic radiation and other dangers of living outside Earth. 

The equipment and human beings need protection from radiation and extremities in the temperature on missions to Mars and Moon. For this, infrastructures need to be built on these environments. Aleksandra Radlinska, principal investigator and assistant civil engineer professor said that the plan is to build with materials like concrete on space. Due to its sturdy nature, it provides better protection than many other materials. 

Concrete and mixtures similar to concrete can also be manufactured by local materials such as moon dust. If in the future, human beings are successful in establishing colonies on the Moon and Mars, then they can use local materials instead of receiving them from Earth which is quite expensive and time-consuming. 

In the study known as “Microgravity Investigation of Cement Solidification”, astronauts used water mixed with tricalcium silicate, the main component in commercial cement. This has never been created in microgravity. Cement might seem to be a simple material but its structure is quite complex. On dissolving in water, the cement crystals form and begin to fit together. This changes the molecular structure of the material. The aim of this study was to find out the formation of cement in microgravity along with the possible formation of unique microstructures. It was also possible to compare the samples made in space with that of Earth. 

The cement made in space had different microstructures than the one made on Earth. It was more porous than the Earth-made cement. Increased porosity has direct effects on the material’s strength, although the strength of the space-formed material has not been tested yet. Even for concrete which is used on Earth, all the aspects of the hydration process are not known clearly. Scientists will now check which aspects of the space-made concrete are beneficial and which are harmful for use in space. 

The process of conducting the experiments might have some effects on the study results. Cement on Earth is not processed in sealed packets like that on space. The cement made on space developed and hardened in the same way as that on Earth although it looked a bit different. Scientists would now work on the binders essential for space and for different gravity levels from 0 g to g on Mars. 

Journal Reference: Frontiers in Materials

Scientists solve the final part of Sum of Three cubes puzzle

Scientists solve the final part of the Sum of three cubes puzzle

A team of scientists from the University of Bristol and Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) has finally solved the last part of the famed mathematics puzzle of 65 years thus finding the answer for 42, the most elusive number.

The problem was set at the University of Cambridge in 1954. The aim was to find the solutions for the equation x3 + y3 + z3 = k, where k could take any value from one to a hundred. It is a Diophantine Equation in which the number of equations are lesser than the number of variables involved. In a mathematical sense, they define an algebraic surface, algebraic curve. The equation gets its name from Diophantus of Alexandria, a mathematician who lived in the 3rd century. The mathematical study of such type of problems is called Diophantine analysis.

The problem of sum-of-three-cubes became quite interesting as the smaller solutions were found easily but then the other answers could not be calculated as the numbers satisfying became too large. With progress in time, each value of k was either found out or proved unsolvable with the help of modern computation techniques except for two numbers 33 and 42.

Professor Andrew Booker with his mathematical genius was able to find a solution when k is 33 taking the help of a university supercomputer. This meant that the last remaining number to find a solution for was 42. Solving it was a task of higher complexity hence Professor Booker sought the help of Andrew Sutherland, MIT maths professor who is a world record breaker in parallel computations. To solve it they took the help of Charity Engine, a “global” computer that utilizes unused, idle computational power from more than 500,000 PCs to create a super-green platform that is crowd-sourced and developed from surplus capacity.

It took a million hours to calculate the numbers which are as follows:
X = -80538738812075974, Y = 80435758145817515, Z = 12602123297335631.

This finally completes the famous solutions to the Diophantine Equation covering every single number from 0 to 100. Professor Booker who is based at the School of Mathematics, University of Bristol said that he felt relieved as there was no certainty to have found something. It bears resemblance to predicting earthquakes where there are only rough probabilities to proceed with. In problems like these, the solution might be within days of trying or a hundred years might pass by still there might be no definitive answer.

Researchers develop catalytic reactor for converting greenhouse gas into pure liquid fuel

Researchers develop catalytic reactor for converting greenhouse gas into pure liquid fuel

Rice University has come up with an invention that converts carbon dioxide into valuable fuels. Carbon Dioxide was turned to liquid fuel in an environment-friendly manner by using an electrolyzer and renewable energy. The catalytic reactor was developed by Haotian Wang, a chemical and biomolecular engineer at Rice University.

It uses carbon dioxide as feedstock and the latest prototype produces highly purified concentrated formic acid. Traditional ways of producing formic acid are costly and require energy-intensive purification steps. The direct production of pure formic acid will help in promoting commercial carbon dioxide conversion technologies. The work appears in Nature Energy journal.

Wang and his group pursue all those technologies that convert greenhouse gases into useful products. In experiments, the electrocatalyst reached an energy conversion efficiency of nearly 42%. So almost half the electrical energy can be stored as liquid fuel in the formic acid. Formic acid an energy carrier and a fuel cell that can generate electricity and emit carbon dioxide which can be recycled again. It is a fundamental unit in chemical engineering as a feedstock for other chemicals and also a storage material for hydrogen that can hold 1000 times the energy of the same amount of hydrogen gas, which is also difficult to compress.

Chuan Xia, postdoc researcher at Rice said that this was possible due to two advancements. The first being the development of robust, two-dimensional bismuth catalysts and the second, a solid-state electrolyte which eliminates the need for salt in the reaction. Bismuth is a heavy atom with lower mobility and stabilizes the catalyst. The structure of the reactor prevents contact of water from the catalyst. Currently, catalysts are produced on a milligram or gram scale but Xia and his team have developed a way to produce them in the kilograms thus scaling up the industry.

The polymer-based electrolyte is coated with sulphonic acid ligands to conduct positive charge or amino functional groups for negative ions. Carbon dioxide is usually reduced in a liquid electrode using salty water and for the conduction of electricity, pure water is too resistant. Salts like sodium chloride or potassium bicarbonate have to be added so that ions can move freely.

Formic acid generated in this manner mixes with salts. But for most of the applications, salts have to eliminated from the end product which consumes energy and cost. Instead, solid electrolytes made up of insoluble polymers, inorganic compounds were used thus cancelling the need for salts.

The rate of water flow through the chamber determines the concentration of the solution. Researchers have expectations to achieve higher concentration from next-generation reactors accepting gas flow to generate pure formic acid.

The Rice lab worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory to view the process in progress. “X-ray absorption spectroscopy, a powerful technique available at the Inner Shell Spectroscopy (ISS) beamline at Brookhaven Lab’s National Synchrotron Light Source II. It enables us to probe the electronic structure of electrocatalysts during the actual chemical process.

They followed the bismuth’s oxidation states at different potentials and were able to identify the catalyst’s active state during the reduction process of carbon dioxide. The reactor can generate formic acid for 100 hours without any degradation of its components. Carbon dioxide reduction is a big step towards the effect of global warming and with renewable energy, we can make a loop that turns carbon dioxide to useful products without emitting it.

Journal Reference: Nature Energy

Scientists Have Developed a Genius Method That Actually Regenerates Tooth Enamel

Researchers come up with a technique which regenerates tooth enamel

  • A properly designed material which is made of calcium phosphate ion clusters can be used to create a precursor layer for inducing the epitaxial crystal growth of enamel apatite.
  • This needed a new type of calcium phosphate ion clusters which had a diametrical measurement of 1.5 nanometres. They were stabilised in ethanol with the help of triethylamine

Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in our body. It is irreplaceable and many people all over the world suffer from tooth decay due to loss of enamel. However new studies offer hope to end this problem. 

Researchers in China have come up with a liquid solution which can help in growing back the outer surface of the damaged tooth enamel with the help of a material which mimics the mineralisation process of the protective outer layer of our teeth. The work appears in Science Advances journal

Tooth enamel is created in a biomineralisation process where cells known as ameloblasts generate proteins which harden to form the tough outer coating of our teeth. But ameloblasts are only present during the course of tooth development as a result of which the mature teeth cannot repair itself after its formation. 

Researchers have tried several approaches to coax enamel remineralisation artificially but they have mostly failed since the crystalline structure of the enamel has not been properly replicated in the laboratory. Zhaoming Liu, biomimetics and materials researcher said that in this new technique they reveal that a properly designed material which is made of calcium phosphate ion clusters can be used to create a precursor layer for inducing the epitaxial crystal growth of enamel apatite. This mimics the biomineralisation crystalline-amorphous frontier for the development of hard tissue. 

This needed a new type of calcium phosphate ion clusters which had a diametrical measurement of 1.5 nanometres. They were stabilised in ethanol with the help of triethylamine which avoided them being clumped together. They were then applied to the human teeth which were donated by the patients. The super-small clusters properly fused to form the fish scale-like structure of native enamel. This replicated the tooth coating with an equally hard layer which had a thickness of 2.8 micrometres in 48 hours. 

That is very much thinner compared to the full layer of normal tooth enamel, however, researchers feel that repeated coatings of CPIC solution could increase the thickness along with further refinements. Liu said that that generated enamel has the similar structure and properties to that of native enamel. Researchers hope to generate tooth enamel without fillings that contain entirely different materials. They are expecting to begin trials within one to two years. 

To meet the deadline, scientists have to prove that the material is safe as presently there are concerns regarding the toxicity of triethylamine, which is the stabilising compound. It evaporates during the process hence should not be of any risk. The substance is currently being tested in mice. It might take some time before it is adopted for daily use and till then the conventional advice on dental health has to be followed. Chen Haifeng, Peking University who was not part of the study thinks artificial replacement can never properly replicate the natural teeth. 

Journal Reference: Science Advances journal