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HOW IT WORKS: The International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station in low Earth orbit. Its first component was launched in 1998, with the first long-term residents arriving in November 2000. It has been inhabited continuously since that date. The latest major pressurized module was fitted in 2011, with an experimental inflatable space habitat added in 2016. As of December 2018, the station is expected to operate until 2030. Development and assembly of the station continue, with several new elements scheduled for launch in 2020. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth.

The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, solar arrays, radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. ISS components have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and US Space Shuttles.

The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, human biology, and other fields. The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars. The ISS maintains an orbit with an average altitude of 400 kilometres (250 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft. It circles the Earth in roughly 92 minutes and completes 15.5 orbits per day.

The above video showcases International Space Station from inside and tell how astronauts live there

Can we stop Aging

Can we stop aging?

I am sure that all of us think about aging at some point in time and also wish to be eternal in some situations. So, do you know that there are many studies going on to find out the reasons for aging and also to find ways to at least slowdown aging? Let us know about these studies and what they have found till now and let us try to answer the ultimate question Can we stop aging?

Populations are getting older

(Credit: WHO)


  1. What is aging all about?
  2. Why and how do we age?
  3. Possible reasons why human beings age
  4. Can we stop aging?
  5. Conclusion

What is aging all about?

Although everyone is acquainted with aging, it is not so simple to define. The word “evolving” relates to the biological process of getting older in a toxic sense. In 1991, the book Evolutionary Biology of Aging provided the following definition of aging: a persistent decline in the age-specific fitness components of an organism due to internal physiological deterioration.

Aging is the accumulation of various errors in our body which slows us down and leads to malfunctions and diseases. Click To Tweet

Let me tell you about aging in simple words, aging in one word is simply an error, aging is the accumulation of various errors in our body which slows us down and leads to malfunctions and diseases.

Let me tell you some fun facts about aging , all the creatures doesn’t age like we do. Some creatures doesn’t age at all. Crocodiles and aligators, for example doesn’t age at all. There also exists a jellyfish named Turritopsis dohrnii which can age in reverse way through a process called transdifferentiation and thus it is also called the “immortal jellyfish

Why and how do we age?

Only a few wide, underlying concepts try to clarify why we and almost all living organisms age. These ideas clash with each other, rendering it impossible that more than one of them might be accurate and is also highly unlikely to be true.

Some ideas have gone out of approval as others have become more commonly recognized by a wide range of people.

Possible reasons why human beings age

Reduction in the number of cells: As we age, our functional tissues contract and are not replaced entirely. Engineered stem cells or neurons like exchanging components of a mechanical device could potentially substitute the old cells.

Special Enzyme called NAD+(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide): NAD+ is an enzyme that tells our cells to take care of themselves. NAD+ decreases with our age and thus our cells get worn out and our cell mechanisms slow down. Low amounts of NAD+ can lead to a range of diseases.

Mitochondrial mutations: Mitochondria are small proteins and tiny structures present in our cells that turn the power and energy collected in our food into useful energy for all our bodies cells and neurons.


(Credit: Lab Test Online)

Mitochondria have their own genes controlling their body functions. As we age, mitochondrial functions decline and thus the so-called powerhouse of the cell slows down and affects all repair processes of the body. This happens due to somatic mutations in the DNA of mitochondria.

Antagonistic pleiotropy: It means that some genes that increase the odds of successful reproduction early in life may have deleterious effects later in life. Such a gene is P53. P53 prevents cancer in younger people but it would contribute to aging by preventing cell divisions in old people.

Senescent cells: We all know that our cells divide and copy the chromosomes. There are long strands of DNA called Telomeres at the ends of chromosomes that prevent small DNA losses. But after some number of divisions, these Telomeres are gone and this makes the cell a Senescent cell that doesn’t die. These cells grow in number with your age and leads to many diseases like diabetes etc.

Can we stop aging?

Aging is just a natural element of nature. Researchers and scientists have worked for centuries to unlock the key secrets behind what keeps us looking healthy and young. There have been some incredible breakthroughs in the sector of anti-aging technology.

As we learn new things about the human psyche and how the human body works under different conditions, we are now becoming even closer to let old age be a thing of the past. Let us see what all are the aging-related things where we have got good progress.

Possible ways to at least slow Aging

  • The stem cell technology:

Researchers at California’s Salk Institute for Biological Studies succeeded in reprogramming aging mice cells using artificial pluripotent stem cells in 2016.


(Credit: PublicDomainPictures)

These stem cells are produced from adult cells,  which allowed researchers to reprogram skin cells into an embryonic state so as to make them active. Researchers discovered in their research that the mice whose cells were reprogrammed lived 30 times longer than the control group that was not reprogrammed. The use of induced or artificial pluripotent stem cells involves risks, and human trials are definitely a long way away, but the study provided some of the most interesting data on the use of stem cells in anti-aging efforts so far.

  • Repairing aging cells by targeting Mutant mtDNA:

CalTech and UCLA scientists found a technique of manipulating cell mitochondria to efficiently repair DNA in November 2016. Typically, cells comprise two kinds of mitochondrial DNA-ordinary mtDNA and mtDNA mutant. The research observed that cells age and eventually die due to the build-up of mutant mtDNA over the moment.


(Credit: Wikipedia)

The research focused on whether autophagy or the method by which cells consume themselves could be used to target the mutant mtDNA and stop the aging process.

They succeeded in enhancing mitophagy activity in a fruit fly, noticing in their muscle cells a separate decrease in mutant mtDNA. If comparable methods can be used to repair damaged aged cells in humans, it would definitely lead to wonders.

  • Gene Obliteration process:

Researchers at the Buck Institute for Research on Ageing and the University of Washington disclosed in 2015 that they had managed to identify and delete genes that could prolong lives after ten years of studies. The scientists recognized 238 proteins that resulted in a rise in the longevity of 60 percent when deleted.

Many of the identified genes are also present in mammals, which means that the same process can be applied theoretically to humans. That being said, it took researchers 10 years to find and remove the genes responsible for yeast aging through a trial and error process. It may take a long time to replicate the outcomes in individuals, although the findings are still helpful.

  • Lengthening Telomeres

Human beings have been attempting to attain immortality for a long time, or at least have been living for and beyond 100 years. Some individuals believe we’re getting nearer, and fresh study will surely reinforce that faith: scientists claim they’ve been able to reverse aging in human cells.

“We can make older cells younger,” said Dr. John Cooke, department chair of cardiovascular sciences at the Houston Methodist Research Institute, lead author of the paper published in the American College of Cardiology Journal. Cooke’s group targeted patient cell telomeres, the caps at the ends of chromosomes whose size approximately matches and corresponds to age.


(Credit: Wikimedia Commons)

Telomeres are the main focus of the anti-aging community. Cooke’s group accumulated cells with progeria from kids in fresh research, an unusual genetic condition that leads them to mature quickly.  

Cooke’s group used RNA therapy technology that provides RNA straight to cells to drive cells into producing telomerase, a protein that lengthens telomeres. The method enhanced the longevity and operate of cells. Before that, cells would “grow very poorly and then die,” said Cooke. “Cells proliferated usually after the operation. It was a drastic enhancement.” Markers of aging have been modified, such as the discharge of inflammatory proteins.

Cells in a dish are, of course, distinct from living people breathing. Cooke thinks that while there is still plenty of studies to be undertaken, it is a hopeful indication that age-related disease can be combated with apps. “When we lengthen telomeres, a number of the issues connected with aging can be reversed,” he said in an accompanying interview.

  • Supplying NAD+: 

In an experiment, the scientists from Harvard Medical School put a few drops of NAD+ into the mice’s water. Within hours, levels of NAD+ in their cells had risen significantly. Within a week, the tissues of the NAD+-fed mice had reversed to youthful levels. A human trial was conducted in November 2017, which showed similarly promising results. It needs a lot more testing.

  • Clearing Senescent Cells:

We have some proteins in every cell which tells our cells about when to die, but the senescent cells mentioned above doesn’t die due to lack of these proteins. Scientists have found that we can clear these cells in mice by supplying the proteins externally.

Senescent cell

(Credit: Nature)

This could help us prevent the slowing down of internal functions due to senescent cells.


Aging is a natural process and there very limited ways that you can reduce the signs of aging. While you definitely can’t stop the aging process now, you can make decisions that improve your ability to move forward and maintain a healthy and active life, do things you can enjoy and spend time with your loved ones. Probably in the future, you could take a variety of therapies and live a longer life and even become immortal

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Famous Equations Einstein's mass energy relation

# 3 Einstein’s Mass Energy Relation

Einstein, an absolute genius, has given a lot of groundbreaking theories and the one which completely changed our understanding was the Theory of Relativity. Being one of the most famous and fundamental scientific theories, it has a lot of revolutionary equations. In this article, we are going to talk about one such equation which is one of the most well-known equation in Physics. It is the Mass-Energy Relation.

Einstein's Mass Energy Relation


  • E is energy
  • m is mass
  • c is the speed of light

I am sure that most of you might be knowing this equation. Did you ever think that why is this equation so important and groundbreaking? Let us know.

Before Einstein giving this equation, the world used to think that energy and mass are two very different things. Newtonian mechanics told that object at rest has no energy but this equation opened our eyes and told that even an object at rest has an energy of mc2. This equation has drastically changed our understanding and told us that mass and energy are the same and are interconvertible.

So, the equation tells that you can create mass out of pure energy and you can get energy from the mass. When you add one joule of energy to a system, you are adding 1.11×10−17 kg of mass to that system. In daily life this is negligible but we see its consequences when we travel at speeds close to that of light. Einstein has given a mass velocity relation which tells the increase in mass with an increase in velocity.

Coming to the reverse process, the mass to energy conversion, 1 Kilogram of mass is equal to 9×1016 Joules which is really huge. If we could invent some method which can harness complete energy from mass then we wouldn’t need any other source for power. We know a process called Nuclear Fusion which can harness 0.7 times of this energy but sadly we don’t have the technology to do nuclear fusion on earth yet.

So, I hope that you got an essence of what this equation means and how did it change our understanding regarding mass and energy.

Read More: Famous Equations


How to Cure Aging – During Your Lifetime?

Aging is one of the biggest question we still have. Aging in one word is an error, it is the accumulation of different errors in our body which slows down our system and makes it sluggish. Scientists have been researching extensively and have done many successful tests on animals. We have to wait and see whether we would be able to stop or atleast slow aging or not.

The above video describes three of the most important factors contributing to aging and tells us how can we cure stop these things. So. I hope that you get good knowledge about this topic by seeing the video.


Can we stop aging?

I am sure that all of us think about aging at some point in time and also wish to be eternal in some situations. So, do you know that there are many studies going on to find out the reasons for aging and also to find ways to at least slowdown aging?

Food Safety poster

Everything You Need To Know About Food Poisoning

Food poisoning is a short-term illness that is caused by eating contaminated food.  Also called as foodborne illness, it occurs due to the consumption of contaminated food.

The report by World Health Organisation which estimates the burden of foodborne diseases caused by 31 agents – bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins and chemicals – states that each year as many as 600 million, or almost 1 in 10 people in the world, fall ill after consuming contaminated food. Of these, 420 000 people die, including 125 000 children under the age of 5 years.

According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, the number of foodborne disease outbreaks is increasing year by year.

foodborne illness break out stats

(Credit: Centre for Disease Control and Prevention)

So, let us know everything we need to know about food poisoning so that we can take proper measures against this growing problem.


  1. What causes food poisoning?
  2. Types of harmful bacteria, parasites, and virus that cause food poisoning
  3. Food Poisoning Symptoms
  4. When is it important to consult a doctor?
  5. What to do in the case of food poisoning?
  6. Food poisoning is more harmful to:
  7. Food safety tips
  8. Conclusion

What causes food poisoning?

Food poisoning is any illness resulting due to pathogens bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

food production chain

Food production chain (Credit: CDC)

Harmful toxins and almost 250 different types of bacteria cause food poisoning and these can contaminate food at any stage of processing or production. We will get to know about the most common bacteria and toxins in the further sections.

Cross-contamination can take place right at your home if the food you eat is treated or cooked incorrectly. Since these foods are cooked incorrectly, there is a high chance that the food items aren’t cooked well enough and they are still raw and the harmful organisms are not destroyed before eating.   

So, just protecting our food from contaminating agent is not enough, we also have to cook it well

Types of harmful bacteria, parasites, and virus that cause food poisoning:

There are a large number of Bacteria, viruses, and parasites that cause food poisoning.

Bacteria and Virus: Bacteria and viruses are the most common reason for the contamination of food. The symptoms and the severity of food poisoning may although differ as it depends on what type of bacteria or virus has actually contaminated the food.

Most illness is caused by the below-mentioned bacteria and viruses.

  1. Salmonella: A rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the  Enterobacteriaceae family
  2. Campylobacter: A comma- or s-shaped bacteria belonging to Campylobacteraceae family
  3. Escherichia coli (E. coli): A rod-shaped bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family
  4. Clostridium perfringens: A rod-shaped bacteria belonging to Clostridiaceae family
  5. Norovirus (Norwalk Virus): A genetically diverse group of single-stranded positive-sense RNA belonging to Caliciviridae family
  6. Listeria: A rod-shaped bacteria belonging to Listeriaceae family

For exact details about each microorganism, its onset time, symptoms it shows visit FDA’s article or FSIS’s article

Parasites: Parasites are those organisms that derive required nutrients and protection from other living organisms known as the ‘’Host”. In the US, the most common foodborne parasites to be recorded are protozoa, tapeworms, and roundworms.

The most dangerous parasite which causes the most number of food poisoning in America is a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii and it causes Toxoplasmosis

Read about parasitic food poisoning in detail here MedlinePlus’s article

Mould, harmful toxins and other contaminants: Most food poisoning is caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites rather than toxic substances in the food. But, some cases of food poisoning can be linked to either natural toxins or chemical toxins.

Read more about moulds in detail here on FSIS’s article

Food Allergies: Food allergy is an abnormal response of an individual to a food triggered by their body’s immune system. People can have allergic reactions to nuts, milk, eggs, seafood, berries, etc.  as these are most common allergy triggers in the US

Below is the pie chart which tells about Food That Sickened People in Outbreaks with a Single Known Source from 2009 to 2016 in the US

foods that sickened peopleSome of the most common contaminants and the foods that get contaminated because of them are:

Contaminant: Campylobacter

Foods that are affected: Meat and poultry items. This type of contamination mainly occurs during its processing. when animal faeces come in contact with meat and poultry surfaces. This also includes unpasteurized milk and contaminated water. The symptoms of Campylobacter infection can be experienced by the individual in between 2 to 5 days of consuming the contaminated food.

Contaminant: Listeria

Foods that are affected: Hot dogs, canned meats, unpasteurized milk, dairy products like cheese and raw produce. The symptoms of listeria-contaminated foods can be experienced by an individual within 9 to 48 hours. Expecting mothers need to be extra careful of Listeria because it can cause an early miscarriage.

Contaminant: Hepatitis A

Foods that are affected: Raw food, readymade produce, canned foods, raw fish and meat, shellfish or oysters which reside in contaminated water. Listeria also contaminates soil and water. The symptoms of Hepatitis based contamination can be experienced by an individual within 28 days.

Contaminant: Salmonella

Foods that are affected: Egg yolks, raw and contaminated milk, poultry, raw dairy products. It can be spread through uncleaned surfaces, dirty kitchen knives, and vessels, or an infected food handler.  The symptoms can usually be experienced by the individual within 1 to 3 days of the contamination.

Contaminant: Rotavirus

Foods that are affected: Raw food, canned food, infected food supplier or handler. The symptoms can usually be experienced within 1 to 3 days by the individual.

Food Poisoning Symptoms

Every individual has a different body and their immune system may function in a different manner. If someone has low immunity, they are much likely to be suffering from this illness for a longer period of time. Whereas someone with a strong immunity may recover from food contamination quickly. The way their bodies react to diseases depends upon the intensity of the contamination too.

Some individuals may experience severe symptoms while some might experience really mild ones. In either way, it is important to receive medical help and consult a doctor.

Food poisoning symptoms may vary with the source of the poisoning. Most of the types of food poisoning cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms.

food posioning symptoms

Food poisoning symptoms(Credit: CDC)

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Stomach cramps
  • Fever
  • Headaches

An individual may experience the signs and symptoms within hours after consuming the contaminated food or they may even begin after a few days. The sickness can generally last from a few hours to a span of several days.

When is it important to consult a doctor?

If one experiences any one of the following symptoms, seek immediate medical attention:

  • Inability to eat
  • A frequent episode of vomiting
  • Blood stools or vomit
  • Extreme body pains and aches
  • Severe abdominal cramps
  • Dehydration
  • Absence of urination
  • Weakness or light-headedness
  • Dizziness
  • Neurological weakness such as a blurred vision, weakness in muscles and faint tingling in the arms.
  • High fever.

What to do in the case of food poisoning?

Food Poisoning Medication: Treatment of food poisoning tends to depend on the main source of their illness and the seriousness of their symptoms. The disease resolves within a few days for most individuals without treatment and therapy, although some severe cases of food toxicity may last longer.

Individuals who have food contamination in a mild range may get relief from loperamide (Imodium A-D), or bismuth subsalicylate also known as Pepto-Bismol. These are the medicines recommended by doctors.

It is always recommended to visit a doctor and never take medicines without doctor’s prescription.

A doctor will also prescribe certain antibiotics if you have specific types of bacterial poisoning and the symptoms range from severe to critical.

For instance, food poisoning caused by the contaminant Listeria needs treatment with an intravenous antibiotic during hospitalization,  Antibiotics will not assist a patient if they have a food poisoning that is caused by viruses. Antibiotics may often worsen the symptoms in various kinds viral food contamination.

Another treatment for food poisoning may include the replacement of lost fluids from your body.

Due to persistent diarrhoea, a lot of bodily fluids are lost. Fluids and electrolytes that contain minerals such as sodium components and are rich in potassium and calcium maintain the balance of healthy fluids in the body and also contribute to keeping your heartbeat normal. All of this needs to be replaced during food poisoning.

The patients diagnosed with food poisoning will receive intravenous treatment such as salts and fluids through the veins to prevent and treat dehydration in the body.

Alternatively, you can sip water throughout the day or have small ice chips if you need to.

Since diarrhoea and incessant vomiting can throw off your body’s share of fluids and protective electrolytes, you can drink more water, soups or broths, or an electrolyte solution to replace the fluids and minerals that have been lost.

It is important to stay away from carbonated soda or any other fizzy drinks, caffeine or alcohol. It is advised to stay away from spicy and fatty foods.

You can consume small quantities of bland and nonfatty foods such as dry crackers, mild flavour biscuits or toast and rice.

Food poisoning is more harmful to:

  • Adults and old age groups of people who are 60 years and older.
  • Babies and children
  • Pregnant women
  • People with an existing chronic illness.
  • Those who have a weak immune system

Food safety tips

To prevent food poisoning at home, keep the following things in mind.

food safety tips

food safety tips(credit: CDC)

  • Always consume fresh foods.
  • Avoid raw food and unprocessed food
  • Wash your hands always before eating
  • Keep utensils clean and place them on a clean surface.
  • Cook foods to the proper temperature and avoid eating raw meat or uncooked meat
  • Refrigerate leftovers or freeze the perishable foods.
  • Defrost food and do not thaw it at room temperature.
  • Avoid unpasteurized foods such as juices, milk and dairy products and ciders.
  • Avoid soft cheese such as Feta, blue-veined cheese, and unpasteurized cheese and dairy products.
  • Those with weakened immune symptoms and children should avoid consuming raw or undercooked eggs, meat, shellfish including oysters, clams, and scallops.
  • Avoid raw sprouts such as bean and radish.
  • Throw away leftover food whenever in doubt.

Let nature do its job:

Health conditions and illness is a part of our life, unlike many other things. Its quite natural that when you experience the symptoms of food poisoning and contamination, you will need to rest.

You would need quick relief but as tempting as that sounds, it is advisable to avoid some over the counter medications to stop the vomiting and diarrhoea. The vomiting and diarrhoea are practically helping your body fight the harmful toxins and get rid of whatever is making you feel sick.

If you think you require medications, consult a doctor and seek medical advice. And make sure not to take any medications without a prescription and give the same to children. The side effects of that could be pretty dangerous.

Food poisoning usually seems to go away on its own, but make sure to visit a doctor if the symptoms you experience are severe. Talk to your doctor and tell him about your condition in detail and he will prescribe the right medicine for you.


Taking care of your body is an integral part of your life. Make sure to take the necessary precautions and prevent the cases of food poisoning before they can actually affect you for a long time. Children, feeding mothers and those who have a weakened immune system should take extra steps and be careful from food poisoning.

Food poisoning generally doesn’t last for a long period of time but can cause severe illness and dehydration of the human body. Take the necessary steps and precautions to stay safe from such illnesses at all times.

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An infographic on Food poisoning

artist impression naro

Cool, Nebulous Ring around Milky Way’s Supermassive Black Hole

Through decades of study, astronomers have developed a clearer picture of the chaotic and crowded neighborhood surrounding the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Our galactic center is approximately 26,000 light-years from Earth and the supermassive black hole there, known as Sagittarius A* (A “star”), is 4 million times the mass of our Sun.

We now know that this region is brimming with roving stars, interstellar dust clouds, and a large reservoir of both phenomenally hot and comparatively colder gases. These gases are expected to orbit the black hole in a vast accretion disk that extends a few tenths of a light-year from the black hole’s event horizon.

Until now, however, astronomers have been able to image only the tenuous, hot portion of this flow of accreting gas, which forms a roughly spherical flow and showed no obvious rotation. Its temperature is estimated to be a blistering 10 million degrees Celsius (18 million degrees Fahrenheit), or about two-thirds the temperature found at the core of our Sun. At this temperature, the gas glows fiercely in X-ray light, allowing it to be studied by space-based X-ray telescopes, down to the scale of about a tenth of a light-year from the black hole.

In addition to this hot, glowing gas, previous observations with millimetre-wavelength telescopes have detected a vast store of comparatively cooler hydrogen gas (about 10 thousand degrees Celsius, or 18,000 degrees Fahrenheit) within a few light-years of the black hole. The contribution of this cooler gas to the accretion flow onto the black hole was previously unknown.

Although our galactic centre black hole is relatively quiet, the radiation around it is strong enough to cause hydrogen atoms to continually lose and recombine with their electrons. This recombination produces a distinctive millimetre-wavelength signal, which is capable of reaching Earth with very little losses along the way.

NRAO image the nebulous

ALMA image of the disk of cool hydrogen gas flowing around the supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy. The colors represent the motion of the gas relative to Earth: the red portion is moving away, so the radio waves detected by ALMA are slightly stretched, or shifted, to the “redder” portion of the spectrum; the blue colour represents gas moving toward Earth, so the radio waves are slightly scrunched, or shifted, to the “bluer” portion of the spectrum. Crosshairs indicate the location of the black hole.
Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), E.M. Murchikova; NRAO/AUI/NSF, S. Dagnello

With its remarkable sensitivity and powerful ability to see fine details, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was able to detect this faint radio signal and produce the first-ever image of the cooler gas disk at only about a hundredth of a light-year away (or about 1000 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun) from the supermassive black hole. These observations enabled the astronomers both to map the location and trace the motion of this gas. The researchers estimate that the amount of hydrogen in this cool disk is about one-tenth the mass of Jupiter, or one ten-thousandth of the mass of the Sun.

By mapping the shifts in wavelengths of this radio light due to the Doppler effect (light from objects moving toward the Earth is slightly shifted to the “bluer” portion of the spectrum while light from objects moving away is slightly shifted to the “redder” portion), the astronomers could clearly see that the gas is rotating around the black hole. This information will provide new insights into the ways that black holes devour matter and the complex interplay between a black hole and its galactic neighbourhood.

“We were the first to image this elusive disk and study its rotation,” said Elena Murchikova, a member in astrophysics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, and lead author on the paper. “We are also probing accretion onto the black hole. This is important because this is our closest supermassive black hole. Even so, we still have no good understanding of how its accretion works. We hope these new ALMA observations will help the black hole give up some of its secrets.”

Materials provided by NRAO

Einstein's mass velocity relation

#2 Einstein’s Mass Velocity Relation

Albert Einstein, an absolute genius has given groundbreaking theories and one theory among them which was a revolution was the Theory of Relativity. It took 100 years to get strong proofs for this theory.

In 1905 Einstein proved that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers and that the speed of light in a vacuum was independent of the motion of all observers. This was the Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein then spent 10 more years to include acceleration in his theory and published his General Theory of Relativity.

These theories had many revolutionary equations and relation. Let us see one such equation which is Einstein’s mass-velocity relation.

Einstein’s Mass-Velocity Equation


  • v is the magnitude of the velocity
  • c is the speed of light
  • m0 is the rest mass of the body
  • m is the relativistic mass

Now, what is so special about this mass-velocity relation. Let us understand what does this equation mean. This equation tells us that if we travel with speeds approaching the speed of light then our mass will increase with speed. So, do you really gain mass? Do you become fat? No, let me tell you that we take inertial mass into consideration here. Inertial mass measures an object’s resistance to being accelerated by a force. Now, every body has rest mass which is m0 here in the formula.    

If an object moves with some speed then the kinetic energy adds up to the rest mass and overall the inertial mass increases. This means that if an object approaches light speed then its inertial mass increases rapidly and accelerating it further becomes more and more difficult. If any object reaches light speed its inertial mass approaches infinite according to the above equation. Thus, Einstein stated that no object can travel faster than light speed.

I hope you got clarity about this equation and if you have any doubts please comment below, I will surely reply as quickly as possible.

Read about more such interesting relations and equations: Famous Equations

CERN | Big Bang Machine – Documentary HD

What is CERN?

The European Organization for Nuclear Research, known as CERN, is a research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Physicists and engineers at CERN use the world’s largest scientific instruments to study the basic constituents of matter – fundamental particles. Subatomic particles are made to collide at close to the speed of light. The process gives us clues about how the particles interact and provide insights into the laws of nature. We want to advance the boundaries of human knowledge by delving into the smallest building blocks of our universe. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before the beams are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these high energy collisions. Founded in 1954, the CERN laboratory sits near the border of France and Switzerland border close to Geneva. It was one of Europe’s first joint ventures and now has 22 member states.

So, I think you all would be very interested to know about CERN and you might be having many questions in your mind about CERN. I think you can watch the above video and get some clarity about CERN

Is Anybody Out There? (Alien Life Documentary)

Whenever I look up into the night sky, I get thousands of questions into my head immediately and some of them are like, Do aliens exist? Are aliens there watching us? If aliens exist, then how would they look like? Do aliens exist in another dimension? Are we alone in this vast universe? Are aliens there watching us? If aliens exist, then how would they look like? If aliens exist, why didn’t they contact us yet? What kind of intelligence would they have? and much more

I think almost everyone gets these questions into their brain at some time. So, watch the above video to get at least partial answers to some of the questions as no one on the planet knows exact answers to those questions. Researchers across the world are working very hard to find signs of extraterrestrial intelligence, watch the video and get to know what all are we doing to find aliens.

Wormholes Explained – Breaking Spacetime

Wormholes can be visualized as portals that can allow entities to travel through space and time. The bridges that link two separate points in space-time are referred to as Einstein-Rosen bridges. Black holes, white holes and wormholes are solutions to Einsteins’ Field Equation. A wormhole is said to be connecting two points in space-time. You might have seen these wormholes in science fiction movies like Interstellar, but did you ever bother to know about the wormholes and the possibility of their existence?

There are many questions around the wormholes, Do they exist really? if they exist can we travel through them? Can we travel in time through a wormhole? Can we artificially create a wormhole? What is the exotic matter? What keeps the wormholes open in space? What is the size of wormholes? I hope that the above video will clear all these questions raising in your mind. Below is our detailed article on wormholes for those who want to know more about wormholes


What is a Wormhole? – ScienceHook

Wormholes have served as fodder for numerous science fiction stories and movies for quite some time now. There have been several theories that try to explain how wormholes work and several more on how time travel could be made possible through these wormholes.