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Immunotherapy a Modern Cure for Cancer

Immunotherapy: A Modern Cure for Cancer

Immune systems are made up of various WBC or White Blood Cells with several tissues and organs. The main job of the immune system is to fight against germs and microorganisms and keep the body healthy. Immunotherapy drugs aid the immune system to work well, and that makes it easier for the body to get rid of certain cancer cells.

Immunotherapy helps to slow down the growth and flow of cancer cells. It restricts cancer to spread in the body and helps the immune system to respond well by destroying the cancer cells. There are numerous immunotherapy drugs explicitly tested in labs, which can fight cancer.

Immunotherapy can have major side effects. If you are being advised for immunotherapy by your doctor, then there are a lot of reasons to talk about them before you decide to go for this curing process. Immunotherapy is known to be a cancer treatment which can boost your body’s natural defenses to fight against cancer, but it can also make them rogue which may end up attacking healthy, functioning parts of a person’s body, causing unpredictable side effects that may be life-threatening if not treated early.

All you need to know about Immunotherapy

There are numerous treatments such as chemotherapy, surgery and radiation which are widely approved as the standard way of treatments to stop cancer. Many additional drugs are utilized to restrict the growth and spread of cancer cells. Treat your side effects which arise due to radiation, surgery, and you can manage the pain. Moreover, the traditional cancer treatment can kill several diseases where the patient’s body is under attacked by different diseases.  However, it is sometimes dangerous, exhausting, and its side effects are explicitly substantial.

The idea and the new treatment have caught several attentions of doctors and scientists. The results for different patients are credible. And it is known as Immunotherapy, and the goal is to boost your immune system to stop cancer. Those who are interested in the medical field of immunotherapy recognize the main power of the human body. According to the sources and researches, it has been found that the immune system can eliminate the tumors on a patient body by simply co-opting inhibitory pathways. Thus it put a break on the response of the immune system. The idea of immunotherapy includes the engineering, or it enhances the immune cells of the patients that wipe out the cancer elements.

The therapy is also known as ACT (Adoptive Cell Transfer), and its clinical results are simply remarkable. Remain cancer free by simply eliminating the cancer cells and improve your health. Experts clearly agree to the fact that the human immune system can do well if the right amount of tools is provided to it.

Immunotherapy is classified as a ‘Living Drug.’

Immunotherapy is known as the ‘living drug’ because it is responsible for building the T-cells. A patient’s blood collects these, and the cells are further altered to build “special receptors” which are referred to CAR’s or Chimeric Antigen Receptors. Basically, these CAR’s are the protein which allows these T-cells to strikes the antigen-protein which is found in the cancer cells.

The T-cells are then engineered in the lab which is simply allowed to grow in billions. These T-cells are injected inside the patient, and hence the T-cells reproduce to soak out the antigens and damage them. First, the T-cells experimentation was begun in the late 1990s, and the researchers considered it as the new cancer treatment. And today, the scientists and the researchers are finding many different ways for generating new yet powerful T-cells which can eliminate the cancer cells from a patient’s body.

How the concept of Immunotherapy works?

  • The T-cells protects your body from getting infected, and hence they destroy the infected cells.
  • As you know, cancer cells produce the molecules that stop the T-cells and helps cancer to grow in your body.
  • The drug gets attached to the T-cells and blocks the cancer cells. The T-cells continuously attacks and destroys the cancer cells. And meanwhile, the ipilimumab helps the T-cells to multiply.

What are the benefits of Immunotherapy?

There are many great benefits of Immunotherapy, and it’s a good choice for patients to get rid of cancer diseases. There are many cancers such as skin cancer which doesn’t respond to chemotherapy and radiation. But the use of immunotherapy has helped the patients to eliminate the cancer cells.

The T-cells are largely grown in the laboratory and then it is injected inside the patient’s body, and hence your body performs well. Hence, immunotherapy is classified as the broad category that is designed to stimulate the immune system of your body for better recognition and fighting cancer.

Some side effects of Immunotherapy

The ACT simply causes bothersome effects which are referred to as Cytokine- a release syndrome. The T-cells that are engineered eliminates the cytokines- which are the chemical messengers which help T-cells to complete their mission. A large number of cytokines in your bloodstream can cause low blood pressure and high fever.

Many of the patients have experienced syndrome, and on the other hand, some have reported only mild side effects. Researchers and scientists are putting their best efforts to improve the ACT process so that it can be used as a standard process for the treatment of cancer.

Most of the drugs have delayed the spread of cancer but unable to cure the cancer disease. Your immune system is designed in such a way that it couldn’t destroy or attacks your own cells. The immunotherapy is not being used for a long period, and it is a long hope that the immunotherapy drugs can teach the body to destroy the cancer cells.

Later, cancer will be banished, and you will be enjoying your healthy life in the coming years. And it is truly an exciting idea for patients who are suffering from cancer diseases. These researches show that the patients can give a powerful one or two punch against these virally infected diseases.


CRISPR Cas9 and Gene Editing Explained

CRISPR and the CRISPR Associated system are powerful gene-editing technologies.

For the scientists, the genes and its related fields have been an area of interests for research for a number of years. They have found a lot of therapies and treatments where modern technologies are used to cure various diseases as well as preventive treatments. The DNA(Deoxyribonucleic acid) is the system of the human body with the help of which one can study the genes and decipher many things that can be used to treat various diseases that happen to an individual. Among these studies, the leading one is CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) that have originated before few decades. CRISPR was first described by Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and his associates in the year 1987. They accidentally duplicated part of a CRISPR together with the “iap” gene which was the original interest.

See: A beautiful Infographic on CRISPR and Gene Editing

Genome editing is a group of methods that gives researchers the ability to modify the DNA of an organism. These technologies let genetic substance to be added, detached, or transformed at specific locations in the gene. Several methods to genome editing have been advanced. The latest one is recognized as CRISPR-Cas9.


CRISPR Cas9 – Mode of Action. Image Source: Wikipedia

Cas9 (or “CRISPR-associated protein 9“) is an enzyme that uses CRISPR DNA sequences as a guide to recognize and cleave specific strands of DNA that exactly match given CRISPR sequence, it is so precise in matching DNA that Cas9 can be called as a GPS locator of DNA. Cas9 enzymes together with CRISPR sequences form the basis of a technology known as CRISPR-Cas9 that can be used to edit genes within organisms.

Companies like Synthego provide Full Stack Genome Engineering. You can go check out their website for various offers.

CRISPR technology is a modest yet influential tool for excision genes. It lets researchers alter DNA arrangements and modify gene function effortlessly. Its many possible applications include modifying genetic defects, giving and averting the spread of diseases and refining crops.

This system has produced a lot of enthusiasm among the researchers and scientists because it is quicker, inexpensive, more precise, and more well-organized than other prevailing methods for genome editing.

Growing CRISPR Research

Credit: WebOfKnowledge

CRISPR-Cas9 from Nature

CRISPR-Cas9 was adapted from a naturally happening gene editing process in bacteria. Whenever viruses attack bacteria they inject there own code of DNA into the bacteria and if the bacteria survives this attack, it stores the virus’s DNA in a DNA archive called CRISPR. When the same virus or any virus of the same strain attacks the bacteria again, the bacteria quickly produces an RNA from the stored DNA and uses the Cas-9 protein to scan through to find the exact match of virus DNA. If it does find a match, it removes that DNA protecting the bacteria from the virus.

The CRISPR-Cas9 scheme works likewise in the lab. Examiners create a small portion of RNA with a short “guide” arrangement that attributes (binds) to a precise target arrangement of DNA in a gene. The RNA also muddles to the Cas9 enzyme. As in microbes, the adapted RNA is used to identify the DNA arrangement, and the Cas9 enzyme punctures the DNA at the battered location. Even though Cas9 is the enzyme that is used most frequently, certain other enzymes like Cpf1 (CRISPR-associated endonuclease in Prevotella and Francisella 1) can also be used. Once the DNA is cut, investigators use the cell’s DNA repair gear to add or delete pieces of inherited material or to make variations to the DNA by substituting prevailing section with a tailored DNA sequence.


The human DNA model takes on a double helix shape. Source: www.pixabay.com

Gene editing is of inordinate importance in the inhibition and treatment of the human ailment. Presently, most study on genome editing is done to comprehend diseases using cells and animal models. Researchers are still at work to define whether this method is harmless and operative for use in people.

Use of CRISPR in different fields

Now let us look into some other potential uses of CRISPR which can be revolutionary:

1) Genetically editing crop seeds for higher yields and higher nutrition: Researchers are doing various experiments with crop seeds and CRISPR. They are trying to develop resistance against diseases in crops. Companies have been licensing CRISPR technology to develop new varieties of crops.

CRISPR crop research data

(Credit: WebOfKnowledge)

2) Using CRISPR to prevent and cure deadly diseases: It is being discovered in the investigation on a wide diversity of ailments, as well as single-gene complaints such as cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, and sickle cell disease. It can also prevent more complex diseases, such as HIV, Zika, Cancer, Heart Disease, Mental illness. Apart from prevention, scientists claim that we can even cure diseases like HIV. We can even develop effective antibiotics (which are becoming ineffective day by day) against an increasing number of superbugs.

3) We could alter an entire species: CRISPR has the potential to alter a complete species. This concept is called Gene Drive. Generally, whenever organisms mate there is a 50-50 chance to pass a particular gene but using CRISPR we can make a particular gene to pass with nearly 100 percent probability. This can be pretty beneficial if we use it properly, for example, we can totally prevent Malaria by genetically editing mosquito.

CRISPR could alter entire species

Regulating gene drives, Biotechnology journal, Javier Zarracina; Oye et al. 2014

4) Genetically edited Babies: Researchers are trying to give birth to genetically edited babies which could have amazing qualities. Not going into the depths, but once imagine how could it be, you can give birth to a baby with any quality you want, literally any quality!!! (News: Russian Scientist Says 5 Couples Have Agreed to Gene-Editing Babies to Avoid Deafness)

Moral concerns do ascend during the editing of genome, using technologies such as this one, is put to use to make changes in human genes. Most of these variations are known with gene editing and are incomplete to somatic cells, which are cells other than egg and sperm cells. These deviations affect only definite tissues and are not conceded from one age group to the next. However, alterations made to genes in egg or sperm cells or the genes of an embryo could be distributed to future groups. Embryo genome and germline cell editing are developed with numerous ethical trials, including the probabilities if same can be permitted to use this technology to improve normal human traits like height or intelligence. Centred on apprehensions about integrity and wellbeing, germline cell and embryo gene editing are at present illegal in many nations.

CRISPR Controversies

Though CRISPR has a lot of potential, it also has a lot of controversies around it. Many researchers claim that CRISPR could cause extensive mutation and gene damage which could not be easily detected.

A Chinese scientist named He Jiankui created the first ever genetically edited twin babies. He also edited one more baby with the twins. The Chinese government stated that he has violated Chinese rules and has avoided supervision, faked an ethical review, and used potentially unsafe and ineffective gene editing methods on the children. This created a lot of controversies around CRISPR in early 2019.

Even after that, there have been reports from various parts of the world describing controversial and unethical CRISPR research. There are reports saying that researchers have edited the genes of healthy embryos which is illegal and have created controversies.

In between all this, we have also got bio-hackers who can create potentially harmful micro-organisms using CRISPR as this technology is available to anyone and is easier compared to other gene editing technologies. So, we have to monitor CRISPR usage and watch potential bio-hackers to save humanity from some gene edited deadly microbes.

CRISPR has the potential to make completely altered human beings which can be dangerous in many ways. So, there is are many rules in force against the use of CRISPR in almost all countries. But still, there is a possibility that someone could misuse this technology.

Advantages of CRISPR over other Gene Editing Methods

Questionably, the most imperative rewards of CRISPR-Cas9 over other genome editing technologies is its uncomplicatedness and effectiveness. To give a good comparison if old methods are like maps then CRISPR is like a GPS system. CRISPR/Cas9 is way faster and decreases the time required to perform a gene edit to a few days from a few months or even years. CRISPR gene editing is way cheaper than other gene editing technologies.

Risks of gene editing?

Gene treatment has some probable risks. Even though CRISPR is said to be easy, it is not that easy to replace the targeted gene only. It is not like we just catch a thread cut it and tie with something else, gene editing is complex. There is a very good chance that we can make a mistake and lead to unwanted mutations (BREAKING: CRISPR Could Be Causing Extensive Mutations And Genetic Damage After All)

This method presents the subsequent risks

  1. An unwanted reaction in the immune system might occur.
  2. Wrong cells may get targeted if we are editing specific cells in grown-up organisms.
  3. There is a possibility of infection.
  4. The new segments may get inserted in the wrong spot leading to unwanted and dangerous changes.


There is a lot of buzz around CRISPR and gene editing and if used properly can give good results otherwise can be harmful to humanity. There must be National and International Organisations strictly monitoring gene editing research and any trial of biohacking must be strictly punished. Things apart, let us hope that CRISPR gets established and we get fruits of it early in the form of disease prevention, cure, good crops etc.

An Infographic on CRISPR and Gene Editing

Embed Image

CRISPR Cas9 and Gene Editing Explained


Antarctica Glaciers

The science behind climate change

The earth’s climate has changed drastically over the decade. Geostationary satellites revolving around our planet help us see the big picture (quite literally), accumulating data constantly and updating us about the conditions of the Earth. Be it from the melting of polar ice caps to erratic monsoons and weather changes, and most definitely warming up of oceans to rise of sea levels. These events essentially indicate the dire condition of the climate all around the globe and its immediate need for attention.

The evidence behind climate change

  • Rising temperatures

Global warming is not a phenomenon we are unfamiliar with. It has had serious implications on our planet in various ways in the last decade and even before. Erratic rainfall, severe droughts, rising sea levels, etc. the main reason behind the rising of temperature was the increase in CO2 levels which was again caused due to pollution. In fact, the last decade 2000-2009 was the hottest on record.

Global Temperature

  • Ocean acidification

Since the industrial revolution swept through our planet bringing in new opportunities, adversely it has brought about some pretty serious implications on our large water bodies. The acidity in ocean waters has increased by 30%. This is due to the CO2 which is being expelled in greater quantities and in turn being absorbed into the oceans. The amount increasing per year is a whopping 2 billion tons per year. And that is just the upper layer of oceans.

  • Extreme events

Certain events occurring around the globe have captured the attention of various environmentalists and scientists, such as in the United States the number of recorded high-temperature weather phenomenon has been increasing. On the other hand, the number of low-temperature weather phenomenon has been decreasing since 1950. The number of intense rainfall conditions has also increased in this time period.

  • Shrinking glacial cover

From the snowy peaks of Himalayas to the Andes, the Rockies, Alps, etc. glaciers are decreasing everywhere around the world. This is a serious indication of climate change and poses serious threats to sea levels and mountain animals. Even islands remain in threat of disappearing completely under the rising sea levels. Satellite observations have revealed how much of this is true. In the past five decades, the snow cover has melted over the Northern Hemisphere.

  • NASA’s data

The ice sheets that form a huge landmass of Greenland and Antarctica have diminished in mass. According to NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data, every year the loss of ice is 281 billion tons between 1993 and 2016. In Antarctica, the loss is 119 billion tons in that same time period. On top of that, the rate of ice mass loss in Antarctica has tripled in the last ten years.


Signs and Science behind climate change

The various compounds, whose abrupt increase in our environment which has caused changes in our climate are CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, etc. Their formations have been explained below:-

6 O2 + C6H12O6 --------> 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy

This is the process of combustion during which O2 reacts with glucose (C6H12O6) to produce water (H2O) and CO2. These chemical reactions occur when organic matter burns in our environment releasing chemical energy in the form of heat and light.

CH3COOH --------> CO2 + CH4

This is the microbial process of methanogenesis during which acetate (CH3COOH) is split into CO2 and Methane (CH4). Methane has the greatest impact on freshwater wetlands and rice paddies. The amount of methane produced in these fields increases with the area of land required for these rice paddies. This is the direct impact of the human population on climate change.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is another contributing factor which is formed as a by-product of nitrification and denitrification.

CH4 + 4O2 --------> HCHO + H2O + 2O3

Smog is another pollutant that causes irritation of eyes and lungs, especially in city inhabitants. Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a constituent of smog that causes the mentioned problems.

NO2 + sunlight --------> NO + O

O + O2 --------> O3

NO2 + O2 --------> NO + O3

This is another process by which tropospheric ozone is emitted from atmospheric nitrate (NO2). First, the breakdown of nitrate occurs from which nitric oxide (NO) and an atom of oxygen (O) is obtained. After that, it combines with O2 and produces O3. Depicted above is the basic science behind climate change.

Random Quiz

Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

Correct! Wrong!

In order, the most abundant greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are Water vapor, Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Ozone, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Hydrofluorocarbons (incl. HCFCs and HFCs). Carbon Monoxide does not cause climate change directly.

Main reasons behind climate change

We might not be able to notice changes in our Earth’s climate and enjoy it as normal. However, the Earth’s climate is ever-changing, more rapidly in these times than ever so before as seen in the geological record. There are a lot of reasons behind climate change and a lot of factors, natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) which has contributed to this. The rapid rate of climate change is now a great concern worldwide.

Here are some of the main reasons behind climate change:

  1. Human activity
    • We, humans, are the ones who emitted greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution. This led to more heat retention and absorption which in turn, increased surface temperatures.
    • We have emitted aerosols and these, after scattering in the atmosphere have absorbed solar and infrared radiation, which has had an adverse effect on the microphysical and chemical properties of clouds.
    • We have also changed the usage of lands, deforested them, which in turn led to a greater amount of sunlight being reflected from the surface of the earth back into space also known as the surface albedo.
Haiti Deforestation

Satellite image showing deforestation in Haiti, Haiti-Centre. This image depicts the border between Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right). (Source: NASA)

  1. Solar Irradiance

Since the Sun is our nearest star and our most fundamental source of energy, it does have the effect that is instrumental to our climate changes. The Ice Age between 1650- 1850 in Greenland was due to the littlest decrease in solar activity. From 1410-1720 it was cut-off by ice and all the Glaciers shifted in and moved towards the Alps.

  1. Tectonic movements of plates and volcanic activity

Tectonic plates form the very basis of our continents and even the slightest movement can cause them to move to very different positions from their initial location. These plate movements can cause eruptions in volcanoes which in turn contribute to climate change.

The eruptions from volcanoes which consist of gases and dust particles may warm or cool the Earth’s surface altering it’s temperature significantly.

  1. Changes in ocean currents

Ocean currents carry heat to all the other water bodies of the Earth. Hence, the change in direction of these currents can change affecting the warmth or coolness of various continents. These can have a relatively large effect on our overall climate (including coastal climate and global too) because oceans harbor a large amount of heat.

These are some of the main reasons behind climate change.

Remedies for climate change

We, as humans should individually take measures to save our planet Earth and so that our climate is not affected as much.

  • Instead of depleting our reserved fossil fuels, we need to use more renewable resources such as wind, wave, tidal and solar energy.
  • We need to make use of more public transport instead of our private vehicles. We need to gradually replace our petrol driven vehicles with electric ones in the future to reduce the emission of toxic gases in the atmosphere.
  • One of the easiest steps our government can take is cutting methane emissions. Methane is 84 times harmful than carbon dioxide emissions and is a much greater reported problem.
  • We should wisely use our available energies. We can do this by using energy-efficient light bulbs, unplugging computers and other electronic devices when not in use, washing clothes in cold water instead of warm, using natural sunlight to dry our clothes instead of dryers, etc.
  • Focusing our lives in nature rather than consuming and purchasing. If we start practicing composting, recycling, sharing, fixing and making our lives would be greener and cleaner and would significantly enrich nature and our lives in the process.
  • Carbon pricing so that polluting nature has a heavy price. It might sound not as much of an important step but it paves the way for greener solutions. As agreed by market economists, carbon pricing is also a business-friendly way to decrease pollution in nature. The federal needs our individual support to help make this possible.
  • We should consume more organic meals and less meat. By doing so, we will help ourselves to a better diet and also our planet to make it more climate-stable. We should also try growing our own food and never waste it as much as possible.

Final Words

Scientists all around the globe belonging to various scientific societies have published numerous statements, coming to the unanimous conclusion that global warming is the primary factor of climate change and that we, humans are the primary cause. We should definitely stop overloading our atmosphere with carbon dioxide (CO2), which we do when we burn fossil fuels like oil and coal to provide ourselves electricity to power our transports and keep our homes warm. The Earth is steadily warming up in response and this is a dire situation whose consequences will affect us in the very near future in drastic ways.

Read More:

  1. Climate change: How do we know?
  2. Climate change, global warming and greenhouse gases
Herd Immunity

Herd Immunity: How it works?

Herd immunity (Herd protection): A Visualization of How Herd Immunity Works

Populations of various species have always strived to thrive on this magnificent planet of ours. Survival of a species is imperative to maintain the balance on this planet. During outbreaks of diseases and infections that can prove detrimental to the population, it is absolutely necessary that the population develops immunity towards the disease or infection. This immunity can be a result of vaccination or internal conformities to the changes that take place naturally. What if I told you that immunity to the population can be assured through immunity developed in only a section of the population? This is claimed to be possible and is referred to as herd immunity.

Herd immunity is a form of immunity where an entire population or community becomes immune to an infectious disease due to immunity achieved by a large section of that population or community. Although several scientists have tried to prove that the theory of herd immunity is a fallacy, there has not been substantial evidence that suggests that herd immunity is not a real thing. So, what is herd immunity? How does herd immunity work? How can communities achieve herd immunity? If these questions intrigue you and pique your interest, then stick around to find out more.

Herd Immunity

When more people are immunized, the lesser number of people there are that are susceptible to attaining the infectious disease. The spread of the disease is largely controlled in such scenarios. When no one in the community is immunized, the chances of the infectious disease spreading are extremely high. When a few people are immunized, the chances of contracting the disease reduces. When most of the population is immunized, the chances of contracting the disease reduces further.

When a sufficient proportion of the community or population is immunized, the spread of the disease within the community or population can be completely ceased. This provides immunity to the entire population/community. This form of immunity is the herd immunity.

To develop a thorough understanding of the concept of herd immunity, we will first need to understand immunity.


Chart Flow Diagram Depicting The Divisions Of Immunity by Wikipedia

Chart Flow Diagram Depicting The Divisions Of Immunity . Image Source: Wikipedia

Immunity is derived from the Latin word, immunis, meaning exemption. Immunity is the state of the organism that enables it to combat infections, diseases, and other biological invasions. An individual would have to develop the appropriate defenses against the infection or disease to be deemed immune from that disease or infection.

Innate and adaptive components of an immune system

The innate components of immunity include the bone marrow cells. These innate components are designed in such a way that they produce certain reactions to foreign substances. These reactions could be rashes, bumps, inflammations or even non-visual.

Innate immunity is the result of an individual’s genetic make-up. The resistance due to innate immunity can be resistance to all diseases in general, or, resistance to a particular microorganism only.

The adaptive components of an immune system include lymphatic cells. These cells do not react to foreign substances. They do not produce any reaction. Adaptive immunity could be natural or artificial. Natural immunity is the conformity to the infection or disease in such a way that it is no longer as harmful. Artificial immunity results from deliberate actions such as vaccination.

Passive and Active immunity

Passive immunity

When antibodies from an individual are transferred to another resulting in the immunity in the individual that receives the antibodies, then the receiving individual is said to have acquired passive immunity. Passive immunity can be naturally or artificially acquired.

Natural passive immunity is acquired when the antibodies are transferred from the mother to the fetus. This transfer generally happens when the baby is developing inside the mother’s womb in the gestation period. These antibodies are referred to as Maternal antibodies (MatAb). This transfer is said to occur usually in the third month of gestation.

Artificial passive immunity is the result of the transfer of antibodies from an immunized person to a non-immune individual. This is carried out by transferring human or animal blood plasma to the infected individual.This form of immunity is generally ephemeral. It does not last forever. This form of countering infections has been used for an extremely long time even before the advent of antibiotics.

Passive immunity could also be acquired through transfer of T-lymphocytes or T-cells. However, this form of transfer is rarely seen in humans.

Active immunity

Active immunity is the response developed against the pathogens by the body due to previous interactions with the pathogens. When B-cells and T-cells are activated, they form memory B-cells and memory T-cells. These cells remember pathogens and develop mechanisms to counter them the next time around.

Natural active immunity is acquired when an individual develops an immunological memory to the pathogen. This memory allows the individual to develop a response that can fight the micro-organisms better.

Artificial active immunity is generally induced due to the administration of vaccines. These vaccines need to be administered through physical means.


Vaccines are biological preparations that aim to combat microorganisms that cause infections and diseases. The process of administering these vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccines can be used to alleviate the effects of the infection, or, can be used to cure the infection.

Types of vaccines

Inactivated vaccines

Inactivated vaccines consist of micro-organisms that are dead during the administration of the vaccine. These micro-organisms would generally have been destroyed through treatment with heat, chemicals, or radiation.

Attenuated vaccines

These vaccines consist of live, attenuated micro-organisms. These micro-organisms generally consist of live active viruses that are cultivated. They generally lack virulent properties and are used to combat the micro-organisms that cause the infection. Different non-contagious strains of micro-organisms are used for this purpose.


Toxoids generally do not use micro-organisms. Instead, toxoids use activated toxic compounds. Toxoids are known to be extremely efficient.


Sometimes, a fragment of a micro-organism is used to treat infections. This fragment is the protein subunit.

How does herd immunity work?

Now that we have understood immunity, let’s get back to the concept of herd immunity. Like I have mentioned, if there exists a large enough number of individuals in a community that is immunized or vaccinated, it means that even some non-immunized or non-vaccinated individuals of the community gain immunity. If there are too few individuals who are vaccinated or immunized, the concept of herd immunity would fail.

This concept is extremely useful.This protects even the unvaccinated section of the community. The reason that this is so useful is that there is the possibility that some of these individuals are allergic to vaccines. Individuals could also have autoimmune disorders that prevent them from taking up the vaccination. Often, individuals won’t have access to the vaccinations. In all these scenarios, herd immunity comes to the rescue.

The equation for herd immunity is given by:

qc = 1 – (1/Ro)


qcis the critical immune threshold and Rois the number of individuals that one can infect, Ro is a measure of how transmissive a disease is.

For example, if the number of individuals that one can affect is 8, then the value of qc is given by:

1 – (1/8) = 1 – 0.125 = 0.875

This means that 87.5% of the population needs to be immunized in order to achieve herd immunity in a community where an individual can affect eight other people. 

There has long been a discussion on whether vaccines are causing more harm than benefit. But, there should be no doubt that they are necessary.Measles is a disease that can, on average, affect 15 other people when an individual contracts it. In other words, it is highly contagious. Enough vaccination against measles can help eradicate it. Measles can only survive and reproduce in a host cell. That is why measles is known to enter human beings. An individual infected with measles has a 90% chance of infecting an individual that is not immunized to it. For prevention of such contagious diseases, herd immunity is crucial. Despite all the debates against vaccines and vaccination, it would be ridiculous to not vaccinate against diseases especially when they are as contagious as measles.

Bill Gates, who is the principal founder of Microsoft and once the richest man in the world once said, “Treatment without prevention is simply unsustainable”. Treatment for a disease can only be made possible through a comprehensive effort to prevent it. To carry out the preventive measures, it is necessary for us to make an integrated effort to vaccinate against the diseases. Diseases are the bane of the society and have continuously tormented the human race from time immemorial.

In the fight against these deadly assailants that we call diseases, a systematic approach of vaccination and immunization needs to be carried out. The brilliance in the concept of herd immunity can enable better standards of living for human beings. Herd immunity can ensure that humans truly thrive. Through herd immunity, we can fight diseases and infections that have been detrimental. Smallpox has been eradicated and the concept of herd immunity has played its part in ensuring its eradication. Polio could be the next in line to be eradicated. Herd immunity could truly be revolutionary in our efforts of creating a clean and healthy world to live in.

How Did Life Start on Earth

How Did Life Start on Earth?

The secret of how life on Earth began

How did life begin? There will hardly be a much bigger question. For the abundance of human history, nearly everybody believed some version of “the gods did it”. The other rationalization was out of the question.

Is the existence of life on Earth a lucky fluke or associate inevitable consequence of the laws of nature? Is it easy forever to emerge on a fresh fashioned planet, or is it the nearly not possible product of an extended series of unlikely events? Advances in fields as disparate as uranology, planetary science and chemistry currently hold promise that answers to such profound queries could also be around the corner. If life seems to possess emerged multiple times in our galaxy, as scientists hope to find, the trail thereto can’t be thus exhausting. Moreover, if the route from chemistry to biology proves easy to traverse, the universe might be abundant with life.

During a beautiful surprise, most the fresh discovered star systems look terribly totally different from our own. Will that mean one thing regarding our own, very odd, system favors the emergence of life? sleuthing signs of life on a planet orbiting a foreign star isn’t getting to be simple, however, the technology for teasing out delicate “biosignatures” is developing thus chop-chop that with luck we tend to may even see distant life at intervals one or 20 years.

Experiments to figure out origins

  1. Miller-Urey experiment

In 1952, Stanley Miller was operating with Harold C. Harold Urey designed associate experiment to visualize however advanced organic molecules might need to be fashioned underneath the conditions of early Earth. They believed the first Earth atmosphere would are composed of an alkane series, ammonia, chemical element, and vapor. They sealed these gases in associate airtight instrumentality, and then exposed the gases to sparks of electricity to simulate lightning. They continued the lightning for per week, and by the top, an achromatic substance had coated the walls of the instrumentality. This substance contained eleven of the twenty amino acids employed by life on earth. Since Miller and Harold Urey performed this experiment, its results are confirmed over and over by different scientists. Several scientists currently believe that the first Earth’s atmosphere was composed of carbonic acid gas, nitrogen, and vapor.

miller urey experiment

Image Source: Wikipedia

Modern experiments with this mixture of gases manufacture similar results suggesting that early conditions on Earth made advanced organic molecules that in all probability became the premise for the event of additionally advanced organisms. However, scientists haven’t been able to replicate the formation of even easy organisms or something which will very replicate itself. There square measure many theories on however the amino acids might need to be created the leap into the advanced, self-replicating life we tend to see nowadays.

  1. Vitalism

Before the 1800s, the general public believed in “vitalism”. This is often the intuitive concept that living things were blessed with a special, charming property that created them totally different from inanimate objects.

The chemicals of life will all be made up of easier chemicals that don’t have anything to try and do with life

Vitalism was typically certain up with cherished spiritual beliefs. The Bible says that God used “the breath of life” to animate the primary humans, associated an immortal soul may be a type of philosophical theory.

There is only 1 drawback. A philosophical theory is obviously wrong.

By the first 1800s, scientists had discovered many substances that appeared to be distinctive to life. One such chemical was an organic compound that is found in excretion and was isolated in 1799.

This was still, just, compatible with philosophical theory. Solely living things appeared to be ready to create these chemicals; therefore maybe they were infused with life energy which was what created them special.

But in 1828, the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler found some way to form organic compound from a typical chemical known as ammonia cyanate that had no obvious reference to living things. Others followed in his footsteps, and it had been presently clear that the chemicals of life will all be made up of easier chemicals that don’t have anything to try and do with life.

This was the top of philosophical theory as a scientific construct. However, individuals found it deeply arduous to giving up of the thought. For many, the expression that there’s nothing “special” regarding the chemicals of life appeared to rob a lifetime of its magic, to cut back the United States to mere machines. It also, of course, contradicted the Bible.

The mystery of life’s origin was unheeded for many years

Even scientists have struggled to shed philosophical theory. As late as 1913, English chemist Benjamin Moore was fervidly pushing a theory of “biotic energy”, that was basically philosophical theory below a special name. The thought had a robust emotional hold.

Today the thought clings on in sudden places. As an example, there are lots of science-fiction stories during which an individual’s “life energy” is boosted or drained away. Consider the “regeneration energy” employed by the Time Lords in Doctor United Nations agency, which might even be lidded up if it runs low. This feels futurist, however, it’s a deeply old school plan.

Still, when 1828 scientists had legitimate reasons to seem for a deity-free rationalization for the way the primary life shaped. However, they didn’t. It feels like a plain subject to explore, however in reality, the mystery of life’s origin was unheeded for many years. Maybe everybody was still too showing emotion connected to philosophical theory to require consecutive step.

  1. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

Darwin’s theory, come into being in On the Origin of Species in 1859, explained however the immense diversity of life may all have arisen from one common relative. Rather than every one of the various species being created separately by God, they were all descended from a primeval organism that lived uncountable years past the last universal common relative.

This idea established vastly controversial, once more as a result of it contradicted the Bible. Darwin and his ideas came underneath furious attacks, significantly from angry Christians.

darwin evolution theory

Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Illustration. Image Source: ConexaoCabeca (Pixabay)

Darwin knew that it absolutely was a profound question, however – maybe cautious of beginning one more fight with the Church – he solely appears to possess mentioned the difficulty in an exceeding letter written in 1871.

The first hypothesis for the origin of life was unreal in an exceedingly brutally totalitarian country

“But if (what a giant if) we tend to may conceive in some heat very little pool with all kinds of ammonia salts,—light, heat, electricity &c gift, that a macromolecule compound was with chemicals fashioned, able to endure still additional complicated changes…”

In alternative words, what if there was once a tiny low body of water crammed with easy organic compounds and bathed in daylight. a number of those compounds would possibly mix to create a life-like substance like a macromolecule, that may then begin evolving and changing into additional complicated.

What came first?

  1. Metabolism

Some scientists believe that metabolism, in different words – the power to interrupt down greenhouse gas within the presence of a catalyst into tiny organic molecules – was, however, the primary life developed. These reactions may need to be evolved to become additionally complicated, and then genetic molecules somehow shaped and joined in later. There are many alternative theories on specifically what sorts of molecules and catalysts would are concerned.

  1. Genes

Other scientists believe that the primary living organisms were genes. These genes were single molecules that had developed in such some way on be ready to catalyze their own replication. This theory looks additional possible since even easy systems like crystals are incontestible to evolve with modifications that breed true. Some scientists have urged that bound compositions of clay produce the correct surroundings for these reactions to propagate.

  1. RNA

RNA could be a complicated molecule found altogether living things that appear to be ready to catalyze its own copy. Several scientists believe that straightforward ribonucleic acid molecules developed and eventually became a lot of complicated and developed into the organisms we have a tendency to see these days.

  1. LUCA

Astrobiologists and biochemists wish to grasp one thing they decision LUCA (the Last Universal Common Ancestor). The thought is that every one life on Earth encompasses a common ascendant, reasonably sort of a great-great-great-….-great grandparent. They rummage around for traits that are common across all life forms and assume that any traits that are common to any or all life forms nowadays should are familial from LUCA, WHO had all furthermore.

Last Universal Common Ancestor by Wikipedia

Last Universal Common Ancestor. Image Source: Wikipedia

Biochemists recognize quite a bit concerning LUCA and her organic chemistry. She keeps her genetic info in DNA, she had many hundred proteins performing arts a range of functions, and she or he used a similar twenty amino acids we tend to use in our proteins. She used polymer and had some reasonably double-layer macromolecule membrane. She was in all probability the ascendant of the 3 kingdoms of life: Archaea, Eukaryotes, and bacterium.

LUCA lived a minimum of a pair of billion years past before there was a lot of atomic number 8 within the atmosphere. She used enzymes containing iron in her metabolic pathways the approach a lot of life on early Earth did. Learning however life arose on Earth is helpful to astrobiologists, however, they confine mind that the approaching life shaped on Earth isn’t the sole approach life may have shaped. It’s merely a method that it did.

Modern Researches

What next? Chemists are already asking whether or not our quiet life are often generated solely through one plausible pathway or whether or not multiple routes would possibly lead from easy chemistry to RNA-based life and on to trendy biology. Others are exploring variations on the chemistry of life, seeking clues on the attainable diversity of life “out there” within the universe. If all goes well, we are going to eventually learn the way strong the transition from chemistry to biology is and so whether or not the universe is packed with life-forms or—but for us—sterile.

Every single one that died before Darwin revealed the Origin of Species in 1859 was blind to humanity’s origins, as a result of they knew nothing of evolution. However everybody alive currently, riddance isolated teams, will recognize the reality regarding our kinship with alternative animals.

Similarly, everybody born when spaceman orbited the world in 1961 has lived in a very society that may jaunt alternative worlds. Notwithstanding we tend to ne’er go ourselves, voyage may be a reality.

Our world views these modifications in delicate ways. Arguably, they create the North American nation wiser. Evolution teaches the North American nation to treasure each alternative animate thing, for they’re our cousins. The voyage permits the North American nation to visualize our world from a distance, revealing however distinctive and fragile it’s.l honestly say they recognize wherever they came from. They’ll recognize what their final antecedent was like and wherever it lived.

This knowledge cans modification of the North American nation. On a strictly scientific level, it’ll tell the North American nation regarding however probably life is to create within the Universe, and wherever to seem for it. And it’ll tell the North American nation one thing regarding life’s essential nature. However on the far side that, we tend to cannot nevertheless recognize the knowledge the origin of life can reveal.

10 Science Experiments that went Horribly Wrong

10 Science Experiments that went Horribly Wrong

Top 10 Science Experiments That Went Horribly Wrong and produce

While science has the ability to enhance our lives and cure illness, it also can be accustomed to torture, murder, and brainwashing. Science may be a force permanently in our world, risking lives of individuals all across Earth in immeasurable ways in which. However, it’s conjointly an awfully powerful tool which will become dangerous in some things. Particularly once it gets entangled in politics. At alternative times, science’s inherent ambition to push boundaries of what notable can even cause some heart-stopping moments.
The following list is in no method thoroughgoing however provides the North American nation with an area to begin once pondering the intense responsibility that comes with the march of science. Here are ten shivery experiments that destroyed lives, or have the potential to unleash doomsday:-

  1. Elephant on meth

45 years before now, scientists conducted a cruel experiment to look at. However, the elephant would react to being given massive doses of a hallucinogenic drug. The elephant weighed 3 and a 0.5 tons and was administered enough hallucinogenic drug to create 3,000 humans perceive. The elephant was referred to as Trusko. Researchers from the University of Oklahoma injected him with the drug and he instantly began to panic and stampeded around his pen for many minutes, then folded. It’s probably the medication killed, however, some theorize the medication the scientists accustomed tries to revive might have contributed to his death. The researchers were making an attempt to force the elephant to travel into phase.

  1. Edison’s lethal mistake

Edison worked on several experiments throughout his life; however, this is often one he’ll always remember. Carriage Dally associate degree Yankee glass-blower and inventor assistant whereas he was researching and experimenting with X-rays. The inventor was unaware of the risks and innocently experimented on the carriage. In 1895 carriage was poisoned by the consequences of the X-ray. In 1900 carriage was suffering radiation harm to his hands and face, and had to go away work. All of Clarence’s multiple treatments were unsuccessful; carriage lost his menus and eventually died of healthful Cancer. The inventor then abandoned his work on X-ray, and refused to speak concerning it voice communication, “Don’t sit down with American state concerning X-rays, I’m frightened of them.”

  1. Doctor’s insane studies

Ffirth was a novice doctor known for his insane method of finding out yellow fever. Whereas treating patients throughout a plague of yellow fever he detected there have been abundant fewer infections throughout the winter. In reality, this is often a result of the illness is unfold by mosquitoes that hibernate throughout weather. Firth didn’t understand this and set it absolutely was as a result of the illness wasn’t contagious.

To prove this he visited nice lengths, he tried to require infecting himself with yellow jack in any method attainable. He drank the vomit of the victims, injected it into his body, poured it into his eyes, and breathed within the fumes. This gave the impression toprove the illness isn’t contagious however sadly; he solely dodged infection as a result of vomit he used was from patients within the late stage of the illness that isn’t contagious.

  1. Stanford Prison Experiment

The Stanford jail experiment employed twenty-two male school students for per week and got them to require half during a psychological experiment. [*fr1] the scholars were arbitrarily allotted as prisoners and therefore the spouse as guards. The guards were taken to the jail daily before the experiment began to spot their uniforms, and set the place up. This created the guards feel as if they closely-held the jail. The prisoners were told to remain reception until somebody came to choose them up. They were then picked up and in remission by the police in a variety of all their neighbours and transported to the jail. The guards might run the jail anyway they needed and there weren’t any rules the least bit relating to the treatment of the prisoners.

On a primary day, nothing very happened and therefore the experiment was nearly known as off. Following morning the prisons started acting up and making an attempt to revolt. The guards set to do and keep them in line, they force prisoners out of their cells, stripped them naked, and so tied their feet up. The guards perceived to become utterly completely different folks when solely daily of power. They treated the prisoners cruelly and told them that food, and water was privileging whereas thinking of the many artistic ways that to psychologically torture them. Several of the prisoners had complete mental breakdowns, those that didn’t become zombies, senselessly obeying and repetition what the guards told them. The experiment had to be reduced for the prisoners’ safety.

  1. Sketchy Biosphere

In 1991 five scientists lived in isolation in an exceedingly independent region referred to as region two. They created an enormous facility, over three acres, and also thescientists would grow their own crops and plants. The ability was fully airtight, and most of the O came from flora. The experiment was extremely promulgated and also the participants became celebrities for a short while before they entered the ability.

Barely any footage was shown of the experiment however part way through one person had to go away as a result of that they had accidentally cut themselves, and so came carrying a duffle of what individuals speculated were provides. This ruined the validity of the take a look at for plenty of individuals. Individuals additionallydetected that they deceitfully used a greenhouse emission scrubber. Most of the participants it clad had very little tutorial coaching. Eventually, it lost all quality and even was placed on a listing of the one hundred worst experiments of the century.

  1. Pit of Doom

Psychologist Harry Harlean Carpenter evoked emotional disorder in monkeys by taking young macaques that had secure with their mother and inserting them in complete isolation, in an exceedingly darkened cage, for up to 10 weeks. At intervals some days, they became psychotic, and most couldn’t be treated.

  1. Deadly Drug trials

In 2007, drug trials started for THN1412, a cancer of the blood treatment. It had been tested antecedently in animals and was found fully safe. Generally, a drug is deemed safe to check on humans once it’s found to be nonlethal to animals. Once testing began in human subjects, the humans got doses five hundred times under found safe for animals. Even so, this drug, safe for animals, caused harmful organ failure to take a look at subjects. Here the distinction between animals and humans was deadly.

  1. Shock experiments

The disreputable “shock” experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram within theSixties showed simply, however, way folks would go once ordered to harm someone else by Associate in nursing authority. The well-known psychological study brought in volunteers World Health Organization thought they were collaborating in Associate in nursing experiment wherever they’d deliver shocks to a different take a look at the subject. A doctor requested that they deliver larger and larger shocks; even once the “test subject” began to scream in pain and (in some cases) die.

In reality, the experiment was to examine however tractable folks would be once a doctor told them to try to one thing that was clearly horrific and probably fatal. Severalparticipants within the experiments were willing to shock the “test subjects” (actors employed by Milgram) until they believed those subjects were injured or dead. Later, several participants claimed they were traumatized always when discovering that they were capable of such insensate behaviour.

  1. Freud’s diagnosis

In the late nineteenth century, Eckstein came to Freud to be treated for a nervous unhealthiness. He diagnosed her with hysteria and excessive masturbation. His friend WillhelmFleis believed that hysteria and excessive masturbation may be treated by cauterizing the nose, thus he performed associate degree operation on Eckstein wherever he primarily burned her nasal passages. She suffered horrific infections and was left for good ugly as Fleiss had left surgical gauze in her nasal passage. Alternativeladies suffered through similar experiments.

  1. Operation Cirrus

In the late Forties, the U.S. tried to divert the trail of hurricanes by seeding the storms with solid. When scientists poured one hundred eighty pounds of solid into a cyclonemoving east into the Atlantic Ocean, the cyclone created an especially unpredictable move — and adjusted directions. The cyclone collided with the city of Savannah, Georgia — no trespasser to uncommon government intrusions, killing a minimum of one person and inflicting over $200 million in injury.


Disturbing human experiments aren’t one thing the common person thinks an excessive amount of concern. Rather, the progress achieved within the last Associate in Nursing fifty years of human history is an accomplishment we’re reminded of virtually daily. Achievements created in fields like biomedicine and psychological science mean that we tend to not got to worry concerning things like deadly diseases or autoerotism a style of mental illness. For higher or worse, we’ve got developed simpler ways that to assemble info, treat skin abnormalities, and even kill one another. However what we tend to don’t seem to be perpetually reminded of area unit the human lives that are broken or lost within the name of this progress.

Anatomy of eye

Thanks to a bionic eye, this woman is able to see for the first time in years

It might seem like something out of a Philip K. Dick story, but bionic eyes are no longer pure figments of writers’ imaginations! For the first time in years, a woman has been able to see again with the help of a bionic eye!

The bionic eye is an implant that works together with a pair of glasses

Carmen Torres began to lose her eyesight when she was eighteen years old because of a genetic disease called retinitis pigments which causes the patient to lose his or her eyesight over time. Torres who is now 58 years old, has been completely blind since she was 45 years old.

Last November Torres underwent surgery to have the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System installed. According to Torres’ doctor, the surgery was as one might have guessed reasonably complicated. Dr. Nina Gregori said:

It’s a meticulous technique, one that requires exact, precise measurements of where to place these components on the eye and we really took our time.”

The way the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System works is, the patient wears special glasses which are equipped with a miniature camera that captures what is being seen. The images are then deciphered by a small wearable computer, which sends the images back to the glasses and is then transmitted to the eye implant.

Torres is one of about a hundred patients worldwide who have had the surgery and the first in the state of Florida. Torres needed to learn how to understand the images which were being transmitted to her, and stated it was like learning a new language. Now, nine months later Torres has been fully rehabilitated and has said she can even see the stars when she gazes at the night sky.

Source: https://www.sciencedump.com


Research shows evolution in real time illustrating interaction between ecology and evolution

In a research to record the interaction of environment and evolution, led by the University of California under Riverside biologist David Reznickhas has found new information illustrating the evolution of a population of guppies.

“We’re detailing how evolution happens,” Reznick, a professor of biology, said.

He also added, “Usually people look at evolution as change over time but they don’t know the details of how it changes.”

The findings, that appeared online Aug. 19 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, show how real time evolution can be resolved into differences among fathers in siring sons, which could be attributed to how successful the father is in finding mates or how long he lives.

prof reznick

Image: David Reznick is a distinguished professor of biology at UC Riverside. CREDIT: L. DUKA

“People think of evolution as historical. They don”t think of it as something that”s happening under our nose. It is a contemporary process. People are skeptical; they don”t believe in evolution because they can”t see it. Here, we see it. We can see if something makes you better able to make babies and live longer,” Reznick said.

“Animals can change their environment around them and that change can adapt to how they evolve. The idea of ecology and evolution interacting is a different view. If you look at ecological evolution, it treats animals as a constant. But this research has recorded the guppies evolving and how they change their environment as they evolve. An interaction between ecology and evolution could yield entirely different results from what you would expect if you modeled the process without the interaction.”

“What we set out to do is watch and get a real sense of how evolution happens. The path is unpredictable and it is happening now.”

VideoMaking of the Fittest: Evolution of the Stickleback Fish — HHMI BioInteractive Video (Channel: biointeractive)

Original Research Paperhttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1813/20151244

Read about a Missing link in Evolution

Gopro shows what it is like to be eaten alive by a saltwater crocodile

Wildlife photographers Trevor Frost and Melissa Lesh have captured the first ever video of a crocodile attack from the view of the powerful reptiles’ prey. The duo’s team strapped foam to GoPro cameras and dropped them into infested creeks in Australia’s Northern Territory.

CreditNational Geographic

Saltwater crocodiles grow to about 20 feet in length and can weigh over 2,200 pounds. And if that doesn’t seem like danger enough for a hunter, saltwater crocs have the strongest recorded bite force of any animal on the planet—anywhere between 3,000 and 5,000 pounds per square inch. That kind of force can easily crush a human skull. There were only an estimated 3,000 saltwater crocs left in Australia by 1970, but now some scientists say there are about 100,000 crocodiles in the Northern Territory alone. There may be 200,000 across all of northern Australia. This comeback is considered by many to be the result of the most successful predator conservation program in the world.


Image: The creatures lay quietly underneath the water as they wait for a chance to grab their prey Credit: National Geographic