## Is Time Travel Possible? Physics Behind Time Travel

We all travel in time, don’t we? From the last year, we’ve moved up one year. Another way to say this is that we all are travelling forward at the same speed. But our topic at hand is, can we travel faster or slower? Or can we travel backwards or forward in time? It is indeed kind of mind-boggling to wrap our whole head around that concept. And there are countless imaginative theories. What if time-travel was possible? Would we be able to prevent something bad from happening? But if so, then what’s the guarantee that something more ominous might not happen? Let us dive deep into the depth of it all. Is all of this science fiction or is it truly possible?

## Physics behind time travel

To understand the concepts of time travel you need to understand a few theories and about a few hypothetical things.

The first name we get to our mind while talking about Time Travel is Albert Einstein and his Theory of Relativity. Understanding these theories completely is very difficult and there are very less people in the world who understand it completely. But this theory proves two special things with which we can travel in time. They are

1. If we travel with speeds closer to the speed of light, time will move slower for us (by the Special Theory of Relativity). But achieving such speed is very difficult and the reason again comes from Einstein. Einstein gave a mass velocity relation which tells that our inertial mass increases with velocity. The equation is

Einstein’s Mass Velocity Equation

Where,

• is the magnitude of the velocity
• is the speed of light
• m0 is the rest mass of the body
• m is the relativistic mass

2. Gravity distorts space and time and time moves slower in places with high gravitation (by the General Theory of Relativity). Know more about Gravity time dilation.

The Theory of General Relativity predicts the existence of something called Wormholes. A wormhole is a special solution to Einstein’s Field Equation. Wormholes are like passages or shortcuts between two points in space. Physicists say that we can travel in time through Wormholes but there are serious problems. We will discuss the problems in the next section.

One more hypothetical thing one needs to know is Exotic Matter. Exotic Matter is such a matter which have negative mass and repels the mass we see. At first, scientists believed that exotic matter cannot exist as it contradicts Einstein’s theories but some of the researchers have claimed that they have found a solution to Einsteins General theory of relativity which allows the existence of negative mass.

## Is time travel possible?

The BBC’s long-running science-fiction series Doctor Who, celebrating its fiftieth day of remembrance on twenty-three Nov, centres on its name character’s adventures through time and house. However, he may extremely skip between totally different periods of history at will?

Travelling forwards in time is amazingly simple. Einstein’s special theory of relativity, developed in 1905, made it clear that if we can travel at speeds close to the speed of light, we can travel into the future. Thanks to Einstein

If one were to go away from Earth inside a spacecraft moving at a considerable fraction of light speed, and is available back, solely a number of years may need to be passed on board however many years may have gone along on Earth. This leads to the “twins paradox“. What is twins paradox? Suppose one of a twin goes on the above-mentioned spacecraft and comes back, he would find himself much younger than his twin.

There’s just one drawback, once after you travel into future, coming back to the time where you started is difficult. There is a possibility of travelling back in time if traversable wormholes exist in reality. Wormholes are known to exist at microscopic levels and even if traversable wormholes exist they would collapse in seconds because of gravity. To keep Wormholes open we would need Exotic matter which is still hypothetical.

Assuming exotic matter exists and wormholes also do, even then we can’t go to any point in past. First of all, we need to have a machine to travel through a wormhole and with that machine we can travel back only to the time when the machine was created. Even if we create machines which have no effect with time and if could travel back to any point in time, we still have problems like the Grandfather paradox.

More restrictively still, theoretical work by Kip Thorne of Caltech employing a partial unification of general theory of relativity with natural philosophy recommended that any hole that enables time travel would collapse as before long because it fashioned.
Thorne did, however, resolve a noticeable issue that might arise because of my time travel (within the orbit of general relativity). The “grandfather paradox” involves going back in time and accidentally killing one’s grandfather before one’s father is planned – preventing one’s own birth.

Not only that, if time travel becomes possible anyone could go into the past and change the future randomly which is very dangerous.

Time Travel (Credi: Pixabay)

A man travels back into the past and marries a woman. After that, he returns to the present. The woman whom he married gets pregnant and has a son. After a few years, that son becomes the time traveller who goes to the past and marries the woman.

So who is the son and who is the father?

1. Stephen Hawking once believed that time travel is impossible

Stephen Hawking used to think that time travel is impossible. He claimed there would be some physical law which would prevent time travel and he even named it as “chronology protection conjecture”. But in the following years, unable to find any such physical law, he changed his statement and he stated as below

3. Many of us are time travellers

Many researches have proved that time flows quickly on higher altitudes on earth. Scientists have compared time from two atomic clocks, one was on a mountain and one was at sea level. The clock on the mountain was faster by 90 Billionths of a second.

So if you want to add a few billionths of a second to your life, stay in basements.

If someone travels back in time and kills the first human, there should be no life and the human who went there should disappear. What? These paradoxes really sound terrific.

There are many other paradoxes and theories, people say that

• All great scientists could probably be time travels and didn’t know how  to go back
• All the amazing structures like the Pyramids, Kailashnath Temple etc might be built by the time travellers and the list goes on

Space and time are two sides of the same coin

Space And Time are simultaneous phenomena (like mass and energy), and together form the fabric of the universe known as space-time. A demonstration of four-dimensional space-time’s inseparability is the fact that, as astronomers often remind us, we cannot look into space without looking back into time. We see the Moon as it was 1.2 seconds ago and the Sun as it was 8 minutes ago.

Also, in accordance with Einstein’s general theory of relativity, a massive object in space stretches the fabric of both the space and time around it. For example, our Sun’s mass bends its surrounding space so that the Earth moves in a straight line but also circles within the Sun’s curvature in space. The Sun’s effect on time is to slow it down, so time runs slower for those objects close to the massive object. Interestingly, gravity is the result of mass stretching the fabric of the space-time around it. Gravity also has an infinite range such that no matter how far apart two masses are in space they will always experience some gravitational pull towards each other. Theoretical physicists have tried to explain this phenomenon in terms of gravitons, S-Theory, and M-Theory, but even today a successful quantum theory of gravity is yet to be found.

## Wrapping up!

While time travel does not appear possible — at least, possible in the sense that the humans would survive it — with the physics that we use today, the field is constantly changing. Advances in quantum theories could perhaps provide some understanding of how to overcome time travel paradoxes.

One possibility, although it would not necessarily lead to time travel, is solving the mystery of how certain particles can communicate instantaneously with each other faster than the speed of light.

In the meantime, however, interested time travellers can at least experience it vicariously through movies, television and books.

## How Will Self-Driving Cars Change the Way People Live?

Cars have changed our lives for the better in all sorts of unforeseen ways. Indeed they bestowed upon us with a lot of freedom but in return levied upon us heavy costs. Drivers commuting daily generally count their lucky stars before going out for the day. Accidents on road, pollution, congestion, etc. are the heavy costs that all drivers have to pay at least once in their lifetime. Hence, comes the new era of self- driving cars. These can change the whole scenario of driving. According to WHO, cars are the leading cause of death from ages 15-29. 20 million to 50 million people get injured due to these accidents. Self-driving cars can reduce these numbers drastically. Nowadays due to our smartphone generation, we are constantly distracted. Self-driving cars would let drivers ride even while using our gadgets behind the wheel.

## Are self-driving cars safe?

Google has already launched videos in 2009 and 2014 about helping people with disabilities to drive. Blind and elderly people could easily drive in cars now. How much easier it would make their lives!

Waymo, the self-driving car remains the clear leader of such cars on U.S. streets. Now there square measure dozens of autonomous vehicle firms testing on U.S. streets. Over subsequent few months, Waymo’s fleet began driving regarding twenty 5000 self-driven miles per day, or 1,000,000 miles per month.

In the last year 2018, Waymo hit another major milestone of eight million self-driven miles as its new electrical panther I-Paces vehicle hit the streets.

Google’s Waymo Self-driving Car. Image Source: smoothgroover22 (Flickr)

The next most skilled firms, Uber and gram Cruise, square measure still many million miles behind Waymo.

That doesn’t embody miles driven within the semi-autonomous modes that several cars currently supply, like Tesla’s Autopilot, that square measure a lot of driver-assistance systems than true self-driving vehicles.

In the previous few years, the best strides taken within the self-driving business are by ride-hailing firms, WHO square measure devoting Associate in the nursing exceptional quantity of your time and cash to develop their own proprietary technologies and, in several cases, giving members of the general public rides in their vehicles.

In 2017, Lyft’s business executive foretold that at intervals 5 years, all their vehicles are going to be autonomous.

At a news conference in March 2018, wherever Waymo’s business executive John Krafcik proclaimed its ride-hailing program. Krafcik claimed that the corporations are going to be creating a minimum of 1,000,000 journeys per day by 2020.

Autonomous cars could take away certain jobs of taxi-drivers, truckers, etc. But on the bright side, it will keep us safer on the road as so many new companies are setting out on the road, quite literally, to bring this gear shift on the way.

# Benefits of self-driving cars

With car crashes increasing every day on the road, self- driving cars are making their mark on the road more in the very near future.

Listed below are some of the many self-driving cars’ benefits:-

According to the government, drivers pose a threat in 94% of crashes. So instead of that, self-driving cars can reduce driver error. It can potentially reduce risks and dangers considerably, securing human lives and reducing accidents.

Image Source: Frank Derks (Flickr)

Drivers behind the wheel are often drunk, drugged, unbelted, speeding or distracted. This’ll be the greatest promise to reduce the repercussions for such incidents.

1. Independent driving

Disabled people like the blind can now lead self-sufficient lives however they want to. Senior citizens can also be greatly benefited from this. Car-pooling of such vehicles can also reduce great costs providing such services to every household.

1. Cost-effective

With medical bills we are having to pay off with increasing pollution and car crashes and other injuries, self-driving cars serve as a boon in cutting off so much of medical expenses and hospital bills. Not to mention the amount of work time we would lose if we were bed-ridden. On top of that the cost of repairing the damaged vehicle. Hence, these cars are helping us save up so much and also reduce the costs of insurance well over time.

1. Increase productivity

Self-driving cars can enable us to watch movies, create presentations or even write documents while driving. We don’t even have to worry about parking because the vehicle parks itself upon reaching a particular destination, be it an airport or a shopping mall. We could do our jobs and respond to emails without the worry of paying attention to the road or crashing or running red lights.

Automated vehicles could reduce the mistakes caused by drivers on roads which leads to road congestion and thereby an increase in traffic. Intelligent vehicles as such are programmed to maintain a safe and consistent distance between two vehicles. This reduces the number of stop-and-go traffics that increase confusion and congestion.

1. Greener future

When traffic jams are reduced and the roads are considerably less congested, it would mean no more idling of vehicles on the road emitting greenhouse gases. It would save so much of fuel and would pave the way for a less-polluted greener and cleaner future.

Greater demand for electric vehicles might be felt and even car-sharing. When electric, i.e, battery-powered vehicles are shared, the cost of battery usage could be shared too. Hence the vehicle can be used for more hours of the day because that would mean more commuting at less cost. This will increase the economic appeal of self-driving cars.

1. Save more space

Self-driving vehicles could pave the way for a smarter future in the sense that they will affect in the building of cities and the infrastructure of smarter designs of roads and parking spaces. In our day to day parking, it creates a lot of hassle in selecting a parking spot, checking the space in between the vehicles and then parking our vehicle with adequate space between them. Self-driving cars will be programmed to negate such hassle and calculate the distance by themselves and then park accordingly. Estimations point out that this can be done saving 15% less space which will result in saving way more space for more efficient commuting and parking in all urban areas all around the globe.

1. Saving time

Each driver in urban areas is estimated to spend around 27 minutes extra in commuting in the US. With self-driving cars out on the road, this could save well up to an hour, if not more each day. The time which they can devote to their well-being and even boost the economy and other benefits that lead to a more efficient life.

These are some of the numerous self-driving cars’ benefits.

## Self-driving cars future

While talking about the future of these wonderful cars, there are countless wonders and expectations and possibilities to come true. Johann Jungwirth of Volkswagen says that restaurants might cover the cost of travel for certain customers to boost up their sales. Fancy ones could advertise these vehicles as part of their meals too. In-vehicle advertising would sky-rocket taking the help of ride-hailing networks such as Ola, Uber, etc. riders can choose between expensive ones or cheaper along with the offers that come with them.

Other avenues of comfort will be opened up to people such as letting us work out in the gym with our trainer for a quick while on our way to work or call a make-up artist or a hairdresser on our way home.

Toyota has already designed e-Palette vehicles which are kits that can be delivered to offices, salons, parlors, shops, etc. These vehicles will modify our entire social lives by merging groups of people with similar interests while assigning rides, which means much more fun while even commuting! Dating apps could take up this advantage and pair up people with similar interests out for a ride on the way to the date or even long drives. Self-driving vehicles might also serve as a mobile hotel while out for a trip. Spacious ones, of course.

## Wrapping UP!

From the sci-fi movies featuring robot cars, who knew they would become a reality someday? In the past five years, driving has become smarter and smarter with each new innovative design to the existing models. From Bluetooth to remote lock and now driverless cars! Keeping human safety the utmost priority these vehicles will venture out on the road in greater numbers making our lives easier and our traveling hassle free.

No doubt, every new technology, and invention come with its own pros and cons but these vehicles are mostly targeted in making our lives easier, connecting more people socially and professionally. Once these self-driving vehicles are economically affordable to the regular folks, these will sweep over our roads in no time.

In answer to the question will these vehicles change our lives for the better? Yes, they will. Commute will become cheaper and less of a drag. People will no longer have to worry about traffic or finding a parking spot. Like most technologies, these vehicles will surely channel the best in us and pave the way for a promising future ahead.

## Herd immunity (Herd protection): A Visualization of How Herd Immunity Works

Populations of various species have always strived to thrive on this magnificent planet of ours. Survival of a species is imperative to maintain the balance on this planet. During outbreaks of diseases and infections that can prove detrimental to the population, it is absolutely necessary that the population develops immunity towards the disease or infection. This immunity can be a result of vaccination or internal conformities to the changes that take place naturally. What if I told you that immunity to the population can be assured through immunity developed in only a section of the population? This is claimed to be possible and is referred to as herd immunity.

Herd immunity is a form of immunity where an entire population or community becomes immune to an infectious disease due to immunity achieved by a large section of that population or community. Although several scientists have tried to prove that the theory of herd immunity is a fallacy, there has not been substantial evidence that suggests that herd immunity is not a real thing. So, what is herd immunity? How does herd immunity work? How can communities achieve herd immunity? If these questions intrigue you and pique your interest, then stick around to find out more.

## Herd Immunity

When more people are immunized, the lesser number of people there are that are susceptible to attaining the infectious disease. The spread of the disease is largely controlled in such scenarios. When no one in the community is immunized, the chances of the infectious disease spreading are extremely high. When a few people are immunized, the chances of contracting the disease reduces. When most of the population is immunized, the chances of contracting the disease reduces further.

When a sufficient proportion of the community or population is immunized, the spread of the disease within the community or population can be completely ceased. This provides immunity to the entire population/community. This form of immunity is the herd immunity.

To develop a thorough understanding of the concept of herd immunity, we will first need to understand immunity.

## Immunity

Chart Flow Diagram Depicting The Divisions Of Immunity . Image Source: Wikipedia

Immunity is derived from the Latin word, immunis, meaning exemption. Immunity is the state of the organism that enables it to combat infections, diseases, and other biological invasions. An individual would have to develop the appropriate defenses against the infection or disease to be deemed immune from that disease or infection.

## Innate and adaptive components of an immune system

The innate components of immunity include the bone marrow cells. These innate components are designed in such a way that they produce certain reactions to foreign substances. These reactions could be rashes, bumps, inflammations or even non-visual.

Innate immunity is the result of an individual’s genetic make-up. The resistance due to innate immunity can be resistance to all diseases in general, or, resistance to a particular microorganism only.

The adaptive components of an immune system include lymphatic cells. These cells do not react to foreign substances. They do not produce any reaction. Adaptive immunity could be natural or artificial. Natural immunity is the conformity to the infection or disease in such a way that it is no longer as harmful. Artificial immunity results from deliberate actions such as vaccination.

# Passive and Active immunity

### Passive immunity

When antibodies from an individual are transferred to another resulting in the immunity in the individual that receives the antibodies, then the receiving individual is said to have acquired passive immunity. Passive immunity can be naturally or artificially acquired.

Natural passive immunity is acquired when the antibodies are transferred from the mother to the fetus. This transfer generally happens when the baby is developing inside the mother’s womb in the gestation period. These antibodies are referred to as Maternal antibodies (MatAb). This transfer is said to occur usually in the third month of gestation.

Artificial passive immunity is the result of the transfer of antibodies from an immunized person to a non-immune individual. This is carried out by transferring human or animal blood plasma to the infected individual.This form of immunity is generally ephemeral. It does not last forever. This form of countering infections has been used for an extremely long time even before the advent of antibiotics.

Passive immunity could also be acquired through transfer of T-lymphocytes or T-cells. However, this form of transfer is rarely seen in humans.

## Active immunity

Active immunity is the response developed against the pathogens by the body due to previous interactions with the pathogens. When B-cells and T-cells are activated, they form memory B-cells and memory T-cells. These cells remember pathogens and develop mechanisms to counter them the next time around.

Natural active immunity is acquired when an individual develops an immunological memory to the pathogen. This memory allows the individual to develop a response that can fight the micro-organisms better.

Artificial active immunity is generally induced due to the administration of vaccines. These vaccines need to be administered through physical means.

## Vaccines

Vaccines are biological preparations that aim to combat microorganisms that cause infections and diseases. The process of administering these vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccines can be used to alleviate the effects of the infection, or, can be used to cure the infection.

## Types of vaccines

### Inactivated vaccines

Inactivated vaccines consist of micro-organisms that are dead during the administration of the vaccine. These micro-organisms would generally have been destroyed through treatment with heat, chemicals, or radiation.

### Attenuated vaccines

These vaccines consist of live, attenuated micro-organisms. These micro-organisms generally consist of live active viruses that are cultivated. They generally lack virulent properties and are used to combat the micro-organisms that cause the infection. Different non-contagious strains of micro-organisms are used for this purpose.

### Toxoid

Toxoids generally do not use micro-organisms. Instead, toxoids use activated toxic compounds. Toxoids are known to be extremely efficient.

### Subunit

Sometimes, a fragment of a micro-organism is used to treat infections. This fragment is the protein subunit.

### How does herd immunity work?

Now that we have understood immunity, let’s get back to the concept of herd immunity. Like I have mentioned, if there exists a large enough number of individuals in a community that is immunized or vaccinated, it means that even some non-immunized or non-vaccinated individuals of the community gain immunity. If there are too few individuals who are vaccinated or immunized, the concept of herd immunity would fail.

This concept is extremely useful.This protects even the unvaccinated section of the community. The reason that this is so useful is that there is the possibility that some of these individuals are allergic to vaccines. Individuals could also have autoimmune disorders that prevent them from taking up the vaccination. Often, individuals won’t have access to the vaccinations. In all these scenarios, herd immunity comes to the rescue.

The equation for herd immunity is given by:

qc = 1 – (1/Ro)

where,

qcis the critical immune threshold and Rois the number of individuals that one can infect, Ro is a measure of how transmissive a disease is.

For example, if the number of individuals that one can affect is 8, then the value of qc is given by:

1 – (1/8) = 1 – 0.125 = 0.875

This means that 87.5% of the population needs to be immunized in order to achieve herd immunity in a community where an individual can affect eight other people.

There has long been a discussion on whether vaccines are causing more harm than benefit. But, there should be no doubt that they are necessary.Measles is a disease that can, on average, affect 15 other people when an individual contracts it. In other words, it is highly contagious. Enough vaccination against measles can help eradicate it. Measles can only survive and reproduce in a host cell. That is why measles is known to enter human beings. An individual infected with measles has a 90% chance of infecting an individual that is not immunized to it. For prevention of such contagious diseases, herd immunity is crucial. Despite all the debates against vaccines and vaccination, it would be ridiculous to not vaccinate against diseases especially when they are as contagious as measles.

Bill Gates, who is the principal founder of Microsoft and once the richest man in the world once said, “Treatment without prevention is simply unsustainable”. Treatment for a disease can only be made possible through a comprehensive effort to prevent it. To carry out the preventive measures, it is necessary for us to make an integrated effort to vaccinate against the diseases. Diseases are the bane of the society and have continuously tormented the human race from time immemorial.

In the fight against these deadly assailants that we call diseases, a systematic approach of vaccination and immunization needs to be carried out. The brilliance in the concept of herd immunity can enable better standards of living for human beings. Herd immunity can ensure that humans truly thrive. Through herd immunity, we can fight diseases and infections that have been detrimental. Smallpox has been eradicated and the concept of herd immunity has played its part in ensuring its eradication. Polio could be the next in line to be eradicated. Herd immunity could truly be revolutionary in our efforts of creating a clean and healthy world to live in.

## The secret of how life on Earth began

How did life begin? There will hardly be a much bigger question. For the abundance of human history, nearly everybody believed some version of “the gods did it”. The other rationalization was out of the question.

Is the existence of life on Earth a lucky fluke or associate inevitable consequence of the laws of nature? Is it easy forever to emerge on a fresh fashioned planet, or is it the nearly not possible product of an extended series of unlikely events? Advances in fields as disparate as uranology, planetary science and chemistry currently hold promise that answers to such profound queries could also be around the corner. If life seems to possess emerged multiple times in our galaxy, as scientists hope to find, the trail thereto can’t be thus exhausting. Moreover, if the route from chemistry to biology proves easy to traverse, the universe might be abundant with life.

During a beautiful surprise, most the fresh discovered star systems look terribly totally different from our own. Will that mean one thing regarding our own, very odd, system favors the emergence of life? sleuthing signs of life on a planet orbiting a foreign star isn’t getting to be simple, however, the technology for teasing out delicate “biosignatures” is developing thus chop-chop that with luck we tend to may even see distant life at intervals one or 20 years.

## Experiments to figure out origins

1. Miller-Urey experiment

In 1952, Stanley Miller was operating with Harold C. Harold Urey designed associate experiment to visualize however advanced organic molecules might need to be fashioned underneath the conditions of early Earth. They believed the first Earth atmosphere would are composed of an alkane series, ammonia, chemical element, and vapor. They sealed these gases in associate airtight instrumentality, and then exposed the gases to sparks of electricity to simulate lightning. They continued the lightning for per week, and by the top, an achromatic substance had coated the walls of the instrumentality. This substance contained eleven of the twenty amino acids employed by life on earth. Since Miller and Harold Urey performed this experiment, its results are confirmed over and over by different scientists. Several scientists currently believe that the first Earth’s atmosphere was composed of carbonic acid gas, nitrogen, and vapor.

Image Source: Wikipedia

Modern experiments with this mixture of gases manufacture similar results suggesting that early conditions on Earth made advanced organic molecules that in all probability became the premise for the event of additionally advanced organisms. However, scientists haven’t been able to replicate the formation of even easy organisms or something which will very replicate itself. There square measure many theories on however the amino acids might need to be created the leap into the advanced, self-replicating life we tend to see nowadays.

1. Vitalism

Before the 1800s, the general public believed in “vitalism”. This is often the intuitive concept that living things were blessed with a special, charming property that created them totally different from inanimate objects.

The chemicals of life will all be made up of easier chemicals that don’t have anything to try and do with life

Vitalism was typically certain up with cherished spiritual beliefs. The Bible says that God used “the breath of life” to animate the primary humans, associated an immortal soul may be a type of philosophical theory.

There is only 1 drawback. A philosophical theory is obviously wrong.

By the first 1800s, scientists had discovered many substances that appeared to be distinctive to life. One such chemical was an organic compound that is found in excretion and was isolated in 1799.

This was still, just, compatible with philosophical theory. Solely living things appeared to be ready to create these chemicals; therefore maybe they were infused with life energy which was what created them special.

But in 1828, the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler found some way to form organic compound from a typical chemical known as ammonia cyanate that had no obvious reference to living things. Others followed in his footsteps, and it had been presently clear that the chemicals of life will all be made up of easier chemicals that don’t have anything to try and do with life.

This was the top of philosophical theory as a scientific construct. However, individuals found it deeply arduous to giving up of the thought. For many, the expression that there’s nothing “special” regarding the chemicals of life appeared to rob a lifetime of its magic, to cut back the United States to mere machines. It also, of course, contradicted the Bible.

The mystery of life’s origin was unheeded for many years

Even scientists have struggled to shed philosophical theory. As late as 1913, English chemist Benjamin Moore was fervidly pushing a theory of “biotic energy”, that was basically philosophical theory below a special name. The thought had a robust emotional hold.

Today the thought clings on in sudden places. As an example, there are lots of science-fiction stories during which an individual’s “life energy” is boosted or drained away. Consider the “regeneration energy” employed by the Time Lords in Doctor United Nations agency, which might even be lidded up if it runs low. This feels futurist, however, it’s a deeply old school plan.

Still, when 1828 scientists had legitimate reasons to seem for a deity-free rationalization for the way the primary life shaped. However, they didn’t. It feels like a plain subject to explore, however in reality, the mystery of life’s origin was unheeded for many years. Maybe everybody was still too showing emotion connected to philosophical theory to require consecutive step.

1. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

Darwin’s theory, come into being in On the Origin of Species in 1859, explained however the immense diversity of life may all have arisen from one common relative. Rather than every one of the various species being created separately by God, they were all descended from a primeval organism that lived uncountable years past the last universal common relative.

This idea established vastly controversial, once more as a result of it contradicted the Bible. Darwin and his ideas came underneath furious attacks, significantly from angry Christians.

Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Illustration. Image Source: ConexaoCabeca (Pixabay)

Darwin knew that it absolutely was a profound question, however – maybe cautious of beginning one more fight with the Church – he solely appears to possess mentioned the difficulty in an exceeding letter written in 1871.

The first hypothesis for the origin of life was unreal in an exceedingly brutally totalitarian country

“But if (what a giant if) we tend to may conceive in some heat very little pool with all kinds of ammonia salts,—light, heat, electricity &c gift, that a macromolecule compound was with chemicals fashioned, able to endure still additional complicated changes…”

In alternative words, what if there was once a tiny low body of water crammed with easy organic compounds and bathed in daylight. a number of those compounds would possibly mix to create a life-like substance like a macromolecule, that may then begin evolving and changing into additional complicated.

## What came first?

1. Metabolism

Some scientists believe that metabolism, in different words – the power to interrupt down greenhouse gas within the presence of a catalyst into tiny organic molecules – was, however, the primary life developed. These reactions may need to be evolved to become additionally complicated, and then genetic molecules somehow shaped and joined in later. There are many alternative theories on specifically what sorts of molecules and catalysts would are concerned.

1. Genes

Other scientists believe that the primary living organisms were genes. These genes were single molecules that had developed in such some way on be ready to catalyze their own replication. This theory looks additional possible since even easy systems like crystals are incontestible to evolve with modifications that breed true. Some scientists have urged that bound compositions of clay produce the correct surroundings for these reactions to propagate.

1. RNA

RNA could be a complicated molecule found altogether living things that appear to be ready to catalyze its own copy. Several scientists believe that straightforward ribonucleic acid molecules developed and eventually became a lot of complicated and developed into the organisms we have a tendency to see these days.

1. LUCA

Astrobiologists and biochemists wish to grasp one thing they decision LUCA (the Last Universal Common Ancestor). The thought is that every one life on Earth encompasses a common ascendant, reasonably sort of a great-great-great-….-great grandparent. They rummage around for traits that are common across all life forms and assume that any traits that are common to any or all life forms nowadays should are familial from LUCA, WHO had all furthermore.

Last Universal Common Ancestor. Image Source: Wikipedia

Biochemists recognize quite a bit concerning LUCA and her organic chemistry. She keeps her genetic info in DNA, she had many hundred proteins performing arts a range of functions, and she or he used a similar twenty amino acids we tend to use in our proteins. She used polymer and had some reasonably double-layer macromolecule membrane. She was in all probability the ascendant of the 3 kingdoms of life: Archaea, Eukaryotes, and bacterium.

LUCA lived a minimum of a pair of billion years past before there was a lot of atomic number 8 within the atmosphere. She used enzymes containing iron in her metabolic pathways the approach a lot of life on early Earth did. Learning however life arose on Earth is helpful to astrobiologists, however, they confine mind that the approaching life shaped on Earth isn’t the sole approach life may have shaped. It’s merely a method that it did.

# Modern Researches

What next? Chemists are already asking whether or not our quiet life are often generated solely through one plausible pathway or whether or not multiple routes would possibly lead from easy chemistry to RNA-based life and on to trendy biology. Others are exploring variations on the chemistry of life, seeking clues on the attainable diversity of life “out there” within the universe. If all goes well, we are going to eventually learn the way strong the transition from chemistry to biology is and so whether or not the universe is packed with life-forms or—but for us—sterile.

Every single one that died before Darwin revealed the Origin of Species in 1859 was blind to humanity’s origins, as a result of they knew nothing of evolution. However everybody alive currently, riddance isolated teams, will recognize the reality regarding our kinship with alternative animals.

Similarly, everybody born when spaceman orbited the world in 1961 has lived in a very society that may jaunt alternative worlds. Notwithstanding we tend to ne’er go ourselves, voyage may be a reality.

Our world views these modifications in delicate ways. Arguably, they create the North American nation wiser. Evolution teaches the North American nation to treasure each alternative animate thing, for they’re our cousins. The voyage permits the North American nation to visualize our world from a distance, revealing however distinctive and fragile it’s.l honestly say they recognize wherever they came from. They’ll recognize what their final antecedent was like and wherever it lived.

This knowledge cans modification of the North American nation. On a strictly scientific level, it’ll tell the North American nation regarding however probably life is to create within the Universe, and wherever to seem for it. And it’ll tell the North American nation one thing regarding life’s essential nature. However on the far side that, we tend to cannot nevertheless recognize the knowledge the origin of life can reveal.

## Dark Matter & the Ultimate Fate of the Universe

So what is dark energy?

Well, the easy answer is that we do not recognize.

It looks to contradict several of our understandings regarding the manner the universe works. We all recognize that light-weight waves, conjointly known as radiation, carry energy. You feel that energy the instant you step outside on a hot summer day.

More is unknown than is thought. we all know what quantity dark energy there’s as a result of we all know however it affects the universe’s enlargement. apart from that, it’s an entire mystery. however, it’s a very important mystery. It seems that roughly sixty-eight of the universe is dark energy. matter makes up concerning twenty-seventh. the remainder – everything on Earth, everything ever determined with all of our instruments, all traditional matter – adds up to but five-hitter of the universe. come back to think about it, perhaps it should not be referred to as “normal” matter the least bit since it’s such a tiny low fraction of the universe.

One clarification for dark energy is that it’s a property of area. the physicist was the primary person to understand that a vacant area isn’t anything. the area has superb properties, several of that are simply starting to be understood. the primary property that Einstein discovered is that it’s potential for extra space to come back into existence.

Then one version of Einstein’s gravity theory, the version that contains a constant, makes a second prediction: “empty space” will possess its own energy. as a result of this energy may be a property of the area itself, it’d not be diluted as area expands. As extra space comes into existence, a lot of this energy-of-space would seem. As a result, this way of energy would cause the universe to expand quicker and quicker. sadly, nobody understands why the constant ought to even be there, abundant less why it’d have precisely the right worth to cause the discovered acceleration of the universe.

Another rationalization for the way house acquires energy comes from the scientific theory of matter. during this theory, “empty space” is really choked with temporary (“virtual”) particles that regularly type and so disappear. however once physicists tried to calculate what quantity energy this is able to offer empty house, the solution came out wrong – wrong by a great deal. the amount came out 10120 times too massive. that is a one with a hundred and twenty zeros once it. It’s laborious to urge a solution that unhealthy. that the mystery continues.

Another rationalization for dark energy is that it’s a brand new quite high-octane energy fluid or field, one thing that fills all of the areas however one thing whose result on the enlargement of the universe is that the opposite of that of matter and traditional energy. Some theorists have named this “quintessence,” when the fifth part of the Greek philosophers. But, if quintessence is that the answer, we have a tendency to still do not know what it’s like, what it interacts with, or why it exists. that the mystery continues.

The last chance is that Einstein’s theory of gravity isn’t correct. that will not solely have an effect on the enlargement of the universe, however, it might additionally have an effect on the method that ordinary matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies behaved. This truth would supply the way to make your mind up if the answer to the dark energy downside may be a new gravity theory or not: we have a tendency to might observe however galaxies close in clusters. however, if it will prove that a brand new theory of gravity is required, what quite a theory would it not be? however, might it properly describe the motion of the bodies within the system, as Einstein’s theory is thought to try toto, and still provide the U.S.A. with the various prediction for the universe that we have a tendency to need? There area unit candidate theories, however none area uncompelling. that the mystery continues.

The issue that’s required to make your mind up between dark energy potentialities – a property of area, a brand new dynamic fluid, or a brand new theory of gravity – is additional knowledge, higher knowledge.

## Dark energy or dark matter?

Dark energy makes up most of the universe, however, substance additionally covers a sizeable chunk. Comprising nearly twenty-seven p.c of the universe, and eighty p.c of the matter, substance additionally plays a dominant role.

Like dark energy, substance continues to confound scientists. whereas dark energy could be a force that accounts for the increasing universe, substance explains, however, teams of objects operate along.

In the Fifties, scientists learning different galaxies expected gravity to cause the centres to rotate quicker than the outer edges, supported the distribution of the objects within them. To their surprise, each region revolved at a similar rate, indicating that the spiral galaxies contained considerably a lot of mass than they perceived to. Studies of gas within elliptical galaxies and of clusters of galaxies disclosed that this hidden matter was unfolded throughout the universe.
Scientists have a variety of potential candidates for substance, move to unbelievably dim objects to strange particles. however, regardless of the supply of each substance and dark energy, it’s clear that the universe is stricken by things that scientists cannotconventionally observe.

## The fate of the Universe

The evolution of the universe is ruled by the number of matter and dark energy it contains, however, the densities of matter and dark energy—their concentrations inside given volume of space—are affected terribly otherwise by cosmic growth. we have a decent plan of what quantity matter the universe holds, and though we do not understand exactly what it’s, we have a tendency to do comprehend it is plagued by gravity. The key, then, to understanding the ultimate fate of the Universe lies in understanding the opposite half this dark equation: dark energy.

Currently, cosmologists perceive nearly nothing regarding dark energy albeit it seems to comprise regarding seventy % of the mass-energy content of the universe. they’re urgently seeking to uncover its elementary properties: its strength, its permanency, and any variation with direction. they need to learn the properties of matter before they will verify its influence on the increasing Universe.

This evolution in cosmic scale is schematically shown within the higher than the figure for many cosmologies. during a universe with a high density of matter, the Edwin Bubble growth that began with the large Bang continues to decelerate thanks to the gravitation attraction of the matter filling the universe, ending during a massive crunch. during a universe with a lower vital density of matter, the growth coasts. during a universe with dark energy additionally as matter, the initial slowing is reversed at late times by the increasing dominance of dark energy.

If the hypothetic dark energy continues to dominate the universe’s energy balance, then the present growth of house can still accelerate, exponentially. Structures that don’t seem to be already gravitationally certain can ultimately fly apart. the planet and therefore the Milky Way Galaxy would stay undisturbed whereas the remainder of the universe seems to run far from the USA.
The nature of dark energy is presently a matter of speculation. Some believe that dark energy could be “vacuum energy,” diagrammatic by the “cosmological constant” (Λ, the Greek capital letter lambda) normally relativity theory, a relentless uniform density of dark energy throughout all of the house that’s freelance of your time or the universe’s growth. This notion was introduced by Einstein and is according to our restricted observations so far. instead, dark energy would possibly vary with time. solely new sorts of observations will settle the difficulty.

## Final Words

We do understand this: Since the area is everyplace, this dark energy force is everyplace, and its effects increase as area expands. In distinction, gravity’s force is stronger once things area unit close and weaker after they area unit so much apart. as a result of gravity is weakening with the enlargement of area, dark energy currently makes up over 2/3 of all the energy within the universe.
It sounds rather strange that we’ve got no firm plan regarding what makes up seventy-four of the universe. It’s as if we have a tendency to had explored all the land on the world Earth associate degreed ne’er all told our travels encountered an ocean. however currently that we’ve caught sight of the waves, we wish to grasp what this immense, strange, powerful entity extremely is.

The strangeness of dark energy is thrilling.

It shows scientists that there’s a spot in our information that must be crammed, beckoning the manner toward associate degree undiscovered realm of physics. we’ve got before the United States the proof that the cosmos could also be organized immensely otherwise than we have a tendency to imagine. Dark energy each signals that we have a tendency to still have a good deal to find out, and shows the United States that we have a tendency to stand poised for an additional nice leap in our understanding of the universe.

## How will the universe end, and could anything survive?

The universe serves up spectacle after spectacle with so much ease and effortlessness that you cannot help but wonder how it has so many complexities hidden within its ulterior cloak of beauty. On the surface, the universe is magnificent and splendid. The immortal souls that are credited for creating it are not yet finished with it. Perhaps, they get lost in its admiration and in its beauty and lose track of the job at hand. The fact that the universe can be so alluring despite its intricacies is in itself worth cherishing. But, like all good things, the universe will come to an end.

The end of the universe is not near, however, it is inevitable. There might not be any need to set alarm bells ringing anytime in the near future, but, the universe does have an expiration date.There have been several theories on how the universe could end. If the universe has been a cause for fascination and you want to learn more about how it could potentially all end, then, this article is just for you. Read on.

### Let’s start from the beginning, the Origin of the Universe

To predict an ending, you would have to understand the beginning. Like all spectacular things, the universe too had a spectacular origin. This beginning was the Big Bang. The Big Bang theory explains the evolution that the universe had to undergo. This theory states that the universe was initially extremely hot and dense.As time passed, the universe began to cool and expand.

Image Source: Coldcreation

According to the Standard model, the four fundamental forces in the universe are gravity, strong and weak attractive forces and electromagnetic radiation. Of the four, gravity is considered to be the weakest. It is hypothesized that during the beginning of the universe that gravity was as strong as the other fundamental forces. All the matter in the universe was condensed into such small spaces that the gravity had to be extremely high. The universe did not stay in this condensed state for too long and began to expand. The expansion is considered to be perpetual and is taking place even while you are reading this.

What is really scary is the fact that the rate of this expansion keeps increasing every second. This expansion is credited to dark energy, but, nobody really knows for sure what it is. Here are the theories that try to explain how the universe could end.

### The Big Rip

For as long as we have known, the universe has been expanding. During this process of expansion, lots and lots of space was created. Galaxies began to move apart since the space between them increased. Within the galaxy, the space also expanded. However, the gravity acted as the glue that kept it all together. The gravity provides the force that keeps the galaxies together. It is strong enough to negate the expansion. In the Big Rip scenario, the rate of expansion increases so drastically that it reaches a point where gravity cannot counter or negate the effect of the expansion of space. The acceleration of space expansion would be tremendously high.This causes the universe to, well, rip. This is what is referred to as the Big Rip.

This effect would start with the larger bodies and slowly propagate to the smaller bodies. It would first start with the galaxies. These galaxies would get ripped apart. Then, black holes, stars, and planets would die. Since the gravity is not strong enough, they would simply just dissolve into their constituents. Then these smaller components would disintegrate. Everything we know would get ripped apart.

Space would then start expanding so fast that it would be faster than even light! Atoms and subatomic particles would also tear apart. Since space is moving so fast, there would be no interaction between particles. So, even the small particles that remain after this massive expansion cannot interact with anything in the universe to form bigger particles. This universe would be so strange that when you compare it with today’s universe, it would seem ridiculous.The possibility is unfathomable, but, not impossible.

### The Big Freeze

Simply put, the difference between the Big Freeze and the Big Rip is that in the Big Freeze scenario, matter does not disintegrate, it gets converted into radiation in a process that could take forever. To understand this, you will need to understand entropy. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system can never decrease, therefore, every body moves to a state which increases its entropy. This means that every body cools down and it disintegrates until it reaches some form of equilibrium. This is true for the universe as well. The matter in the universe slowly disintegrates and spreads out. Every body, whether big or small, will have its matter disintegrating into radiation.

The gas clouds required to generate stars would disintegrate. The universe will become an extremely dark place as a result. The suns would also disintegrate. Black holes would be the only entities left in the universe. These black holes, however, will also lose energy in the form of Hawking radiation and also disintegrate. Slowly but almost surely, only a few light particles would remain. But, even these will eventually decay. The universe would be reduced to nothing. A place of nothingness. Entropy would have reached its maximum, and the highest form of equilibrium would have been reached. The universe would have finally ended.

However, all hope is not lost. The phenomenon of quantum tunneling could cause a change in the entropy leading to another Big Bang. In this case, the universe would just restart as if nothing really happened.

### The Big Crunch and The Big Bounce

Gravity, which is the weakest of all fundamental forces could one day become the most powerful. This is possible if the amount of dark energy reduces substantially over time. This would mean that the universe would simply stop expanding. This would mean that the rate of expansion would slow down at some point and keep slowing down until the process of expansion ceases. Then, it slows down even more and reverses. The universe, instead of growing, would begin to contract and become smaller and smaller. Galaxies will merge, and the universe will get significantly hotter. The temperatures would reach such high levels that bodies that cannot bear such temperatures would disintegrate. Everything will get denser.

Big Crunch Illustration. Image Source : Wikipedia

Black holes that consume everything close to them, would begin consuming bodies. As things get closer and closer, more objects would get closer to black holes. These black holes would consume everything including other black holes. The amount of gravity will be immense. All black holes will eventually form a single supermassive blackhole at the center of the universe. At the last moment of the Big Crunch, the entire universe would be consumed by the gigantic black hole and finally, it would consume itself. The Big Bounce theory states that this entire process has been taking place for a long while. According to the Big Crunch, the universe is stuck in a loop of expansion and contraction leading to many deaths and rebirths of the universe.

### The timeline for the end of the universe

Our planet will cease to exist in about 1 billion years from now. The Sun would burn 10% brighter and the heat from the sun would dry up all the water on earth. All life will be extinguished. In about 5 to 8 billion years, the sun would undergo expansion to reach a size that is so big that it would devour most planets. In about 1 trillion years from now, all galaxies would merge into one. In 100 trillion years, we would enter the degenerate era. This era is marked by the death of all stars in the galaxies, which, results in black holes. In 10 to 100 quintillion years, everything would be consumed by black holes. In a decillion years time, we might have the black hole era, where the universe is dominated by black holes. Eventually, these black holes will lose energy in the form of Hawking radiation and die too. In about a googol year, the universe would cease to exist.

Erich Fromm, a renowned psychologist, and sociologist once said, “The quest for certainty blocks the search for meaning. Uncertainty is the very condition to impel man to unfold his powers”. There is so much uncertainty around. Everything in the universe is uncertain, so much so that even the universe itself is uncertain! The universe always has a clever way to teach important lessons. Uncertainty should compel humanity to make the most of the time we have.

The universe can die but it can start all over again. The reality that we observe today may not be considered reality at all in the distant future. Whether the universe ends or not, one thing is certain, the universe should be cherished and celebrated while we can all still bask in its splendor.

## Black Holes: Discovery, Facts and Theories

A Black hole has always been a thing of immense wonder. Even the most fervent scientists have been unable to fully understand a black hole. A part of its magnificence probably lies in the fact that it still has certain mysteries associated with it. The more you find out about black holes, the more mesmerized you become. So, if you are looking to learn about black holes and possess a desire to try and understand them better, then, stick around, this article is just for you.

### Content

#### What are black holes?

According to Wikipedia “A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it“. Most black holes are created when stars implode. The gravity at the centre of the star reaches such high values that the star can no longer sustain the reactions that take place at its core. This implosion gives rise to a body of immensely high gravitational pull, called the black hole. These black holes are said to have an extremely high gravitational pull, which, led to the notion that black holes suck in everything around them. Albert Einstein has been credited for predicting the existence of black holes through his general theory of relativity. However, the term ‘black hole’ was coined by John Wheeler.

#### Creation of black holes

Cygnus X-1 (the image is an artist’s impression). Image Source: Sun.org

So, how are black holes formed? So, we all know that there are trillions of stars out there in the universe and all these stars continuously undergo fission reaction to keep shining. But, there comes a point when the star has very little fuel to burn out or the star gets receives extra matter in a way that does not raise its core temperature, in both these cases the star collapses. If the mass of the collapsing star is greater than a threshold then it will form a black hole. These black holes are called stellar black holes. The said threshold is called the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit which is 3-4 solar masses(M)

M = (1.98847±0.00007)×1030 kg

This is not the only way by which black holes can form. Black holes can also form by high energy collisions which can achieve sufficient density. However, till now we didn’t detect any such events directly or indirectly probably because of mass-imbalance in particle accelerators. Thus, scientists came to the conclusion that there might be some lower boundary of mass for black holes to form and that would lie around Planck mass.

Planck mass = mP=ħ c/G ≈ 1.2×1019 GeV/c2 ≈ 2.2×10−8 kg

Where,

• ħ is the Planck’s constant
• c is the speed of light
• G is the universal gravitation constant
• e is the charge of an electron
• V is 1 volt
• eV/c2 is commonly used to express mass in particle physics

The outer visible part of the black hole is referred to as the event horizon. In other words, the event horizon is the boundary of the black hole. The innermost part of the black hole is, what scientists call, the singularity. The constituents of a black hole are not quite known to even the most ardent scientists who study black holes.

#### The death of black holes

Black holes do not last forever either. In an excruciatingly slow process, black holes emanate energy and become hotter and hotter. Black holes, in this process, begin to grow smaller and smaller. They eventually disintegrate in a massive and spectacular manner, with an explosion. This entire process is attributed to the empty space around the black hole. This disintegration is often referred to as black hole evaporation.

You might have heard that the empty space is not actually empty. This is true, empty space consists of virtual particles that randomly come into existence and cancel each other out every now and then. The pair of particles that cancel each other out, is generally referred to as, the particle-antiparticle pair. When this process takes place at the event horizon of the black hole, some particles enter the black hole, while others escape outwards into space.

This results in the loss of energy of the black hole. This loss causes the black hole to become smaller. Initially, this process is slow, but, it soon picks up the pace and becomes faster. This radiation of energy by the black hole is called the Hawking radiation, named after probably one of the most renowned physicists of the recent past, Dr Stephen Hawking.

This flow chart shows the life cycle of stars from birth to remnant stages. Image Source: Wikipedia

#### What’s inside a black hole?

To be honest, nobody really knows for sure. It is highly unlikely that you would find someone on the face of the earth who could tell you with a great deal of certainty, what exists inside a black hole. The black hole, due to its immense gravitational pull, does tend to pull most entities that are present in its proximity. However, the belief that it attracts particles and bodies towards it, is a misconception. A black hole does not attract entities towards itself, it merely consumes the bodies that are already close to it. That is, if an entity is far away from the black hole, the black hole would not cause the entity to move closer towards the black hole, however, if the entity were in the devouring range of the black hole, it would inadvertently get sucked in.

Nothing is said to escape from the black hole. Even light can’t escape its clutches. To escape from the inside of a black hole, it is said that you would have to be travelling at speeds greater than the speed of light which is not possible according to Einstein’s theories. It is believed that most of the mass of the black hole is concentrated at its centre. This part of the black hole where the mass is said to accumulate is called the singularity.

To figure out what actually is inside a black hole, we would have to send something into it. The problem with this is that anything that enters the black hole cannot return from it. It is highly likely that we will never find out what actually is inside of a black hole.

If you have ever thought to yourself that it would be fascinating to enter a black hole and have ever considered going into one, you should probably reconsider. The larger the black hole, the more intact you are likely to be when you enter, but, there does not exist a black hole that would not kill you as soon as you reach the event horizon. You would get spread, elongated and ripped apart in what is known as spaghettification. Spaghettification is the process in which objects are ripped apart due to the strong gravitational pull of the black hole.

#### Types of black holes

Blackholes are considered to be of three main types, based on their mass. They are

1. Stellar black holes
2. Supermassive black holes
3. Miniature black holes.

Stellar black holes are those that are formed by the collapsing of the stars. The exact process of formation of stellar black holes is mentioned above The masses of these black holes generally range from 5 to several times the mass of the sun.

Supermassive black holes, on the other hand, have masses that are several hundred or thousands of times the mass of the sun. It is hypothesized that every galaxy in the universe has a supermassive black hole at its centre. Sagittarius A is the black hole considered to be at the centre of the Milky Way. Some scientists also believe that these supermassive black holes have existed since the creation of the universe, or at least, since the creation of each galaxy.

Miniature black holes, as the name suggests, possess the smallest mass of all black holes. There was a time when physicists and astronomers believed that the stellar black hole was the smallest form of black holes. Stephen Hawking introduced the concept that there might exist black holes smaller than the mass of the stellar black hole. These are said to be primordial black holes. Primordial black holes are those that have existed since the Big Bang. These are speculated to have been formed due to the fluctuations in the density of the universe. Theoretically, anything that can have its mass densely condensed and possess an escape velocity greater than the speed of light can become a black hole but experimentally a black hole can possess any mass equal to or greater than the Planck mass.

Planck mass= 2.2×10−8 kg or 22 micrograms

Speaking about its radius, since the escape velocity must be greater than the speed of light, the Schwarzschild radius comes into the picture and it is,

R= 2GM/c^2

Where,

G is the gravitational constantc is the speed of light, and M the mass of the black hole.

Schwarzschild radius is the parameter that corresponds to the radius of the event horizon of the black hole. Every quantity of mass possesses this parameter.

#### Black holes facts

• Black holes are said to grow when they consume objects and bodies in space.
• Black holes have such powerful gravitational pull that not even light can escape it.
• Black holes are gigantic and are often several times the size of the sun.
• Black holes are often considered to be perfect black bodies since they do not reflect light.
• The process of death of black holes is unimaginably slow. It takes a whopping 10^67 to 10^100 years for a black hole to eventually die.
• There exists a black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. It is called Sagittarius A and is situated at a distance of 26,000 light years from the Solar system.

Even today, there is rigorous research going on to completely understand black holes. Recently there was a major achievement in this research and that was getting the first-ever image of a black hole.

Scientists are now planning to get improved pictures of black holes. Let us hope that uncover the secrets of cosmos and answer some questions which have been daunting scientists from centuries

Neil Armstrong, widely renowned for being the first man to step on the moon, once said, “Mystery creates wonder and wonder is the basis of man’s desire to understand”. Perhaps, there exists no phenomenon in the world that epitomizes the saying more than a black hole does. Black holes are incredibly fascinating and are surrounded with so much mystery that one cannot help but be enamoured by it. However, black holes are quite dangerous, nonetheless. If one were to travel anywhere close to one, they would be sucked into it with no point of return. In all honesty, it would be truly amazing to venture into a black hole to find out what it consists of, but, it most certainly is not worth the risk. A simile that best sums up the situation goes something like

What do you think about a black hole? Would you like to travel across a black hole and come back if some phenomena allowed it? Tell us with a short and quick comment.

## Big Bang and the Age of the Universe

Astronomers calculated that the Big Bang occurred between twelve and fourteen billion years ago. To place this in perspective, the solar system is assumed to be 4.5 billion years old and humans have existed for a few million years.

Astronomers estimate the age of the universe in 2 ways:

1. By trying to find the oldest stars
2. By finding out the speed of expansion of the universe and extrapolating back to the Big Bang

## Is it older than the stars?

Astronomers could place a lower limit to the age of the universe by studying about Globular clusters. These circular clusters are a dense assortment of roughly 1,000,000 stars. Stellar densities close to the middle of these clusters are huge. If we lived close to the middle of one, there would be several hundred thousand stars closer to us than the Proxima Centauri, the nearest star after the Sun.

The life cycle of a star is solely depended upon its mass. High Mass stars are a lot brighter than Low Mass stars; therefore they quickly burn through their supply of hydrogen fuel. A star just like the Sun has enough fuel in its core to burn at its current brightness for roughly nine billion years. A star that is twice as massive as the Sun will burn through its fuel supply in only 800 million years. A 10 solar mass star, a star that is 10 times more massive than the Sun, burns nearly a thousand times brighter and has only a 20 million year fuel supply. Conversely, a star that is half as massive as the Sun burns slowly enough for its fuel to last more than 20 billion years.

All the stars in a globular cluster are formed roughly at the same time; therefore they function like cosmic clocks. If a cluster is over twenty million years old, then all of its hydrogen-burning stars will be less massive than 10 solar masses. This suggests that no hydrogen-burning star is going to be over a thousand times brighter than the Sun. If a cluster is over two billion years old, then there’ll be no hydrogen-burning star more massive than 2 solar masses.

The oldest cluster contains only those stars which are less massive than 0.7 solar masses. Low Mass stars are a lot less dim than the Sun. This observation suggests that the oldest clusters are between 11 and 14 billion years old. The uncertainty in this estimate is because of the problem in finding the precise distance to cluster (hence, uncertainty within the brightness (and mass) of the stars in the cluster). Another source of uncertainty during this estimate lies in our ignorance of finer details of stellar evolution.

Astronomers also study some old stars and try to detect remaining dust from ancient supernova to have some more limits to the age of the universe.

However, there are some stars found which contradicts the currently believed age of 13.8 billion years. Read about one such star called HD 140283 here

## Hubble constant

An alternative approach to estimate the age of the universe is to calculate the “Hubble constant”. The Hubble constant is a measure of the expansion rate of the universe. Cosmologists use this activity to extrapolate back to the Big Bang. This extrapolation depends on the history of the expansion rate that depends on the present density of the universe and on the composition of the universe.

If the universe is flat and composed largely of matter, then the age of the universe is

2/(3 Ho)

where Ho denotes the Hubble’s constant.

If the universe has a very low density of matter, then its extrapolated age is larger:

1/Ho

If the universe contains a form of matter similar to the cosmological constant, then the inferred age can be even larger.

Many astronomers are operating exhaustingly to calculate the Hubble’s constant employing a type of completely different techniques. Till recently, the simplest estimates ranged from 65 km/sec/Megaparsec to 80 km/sec/Megaparsec. In additional acquainted units, astronomers believe that 1/Ho is between 12 and 14 billion years.

The latest news on Hubble constant:

#### Researchers detect abnormal rates in the expansion of universe

In the latest researches, the results have been shown that the universe is enlarging much quicker than it should be based on the conditions after Big Bang. The constantly increasing rate of the universe is known as Hubble Constant and it has been very hard to pin down the rate.

## AN AGE CRISIS?

On comparing the two age determinations, there is a potential crisis. If the universe is flat and dominated by ordinary or dark matter, the age of the universe as estimated from the Hubble constant would be around 9 billion years. This would lead to a contradiction as the age of the universe would be shorter than the age of oldest stars. This contradiction implies that either

1. Our measurement of the Hubble constant itself is incorrect
2. The Big Bang theory has to be replaced
3. That we need a form of matter like a cosmological constant that implies an older age for a given observed expansion rate.

Some astronomers believe that this crisis will pass as soon as measurements improve. If the astronomers who have measured the smaller values of the Hubble constant are correct, and if the smaller estimates of globular cluster ages are also correct, then all is well for the Big Bang theory, even without a cosmological constant.

## WMAP satellite

Measurements by the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) satellite facilitated and confirmed the age of the universe. By measuring the thermal radiation left over from the Big Bang(known as Cosmic Microwave Background), missions such as WMAP are able to determine the density, composition and expansion rate of the universe. As of 2013, WMAP determined these parameters with an accuracy of higher than 1.5%. In turn, knowing the composition with this precision, we could estimate the age of the universe to about 0.4%: 13.77 ± 0.059 billion years!

WMAP satellite artist depiction. Image Source: NASA

How does WMAP data enable us to determine the age of the universe is 13.77 billion years, with an uncertainty of only 0.4%? The key to this is that by knowing the composition of matter and energy density in the universe, we will use Einstein’s theory of relativity to calculate how fast the universe has been expanding in the past. With this information, we will flip the clock back and estimate when the universe had “zero” size, in line with Einstein.

The time between then and now could be the age of the universe. There’s one caveat to keep in mind that affects the understanding of the age determination: we have a tendency to assume that the universe is flat, that is well supported by WMAP and alternative knowledge. If we relax this assumption, the uncertainty will increase. Inflation naturally predicts a really nearly flat universe.

The expansion age measured by WMAP is larger than the oldest globular clusters, so, Big Bang theory has passed a crucial test using data independent of the type collected by WMAP. If the expansion age measured by WMAP had been smaller than the oldest globular clusters, then there would be something wrong in either the Big Bang theory or the theory of stellar evolution. Either way, astronomers would have required rethinking several of their cherished concepts. However, our current estimate of age fits well with what we all know from other forms of measurements.

## Final Words

So, in conclusion, we’ve 2 methods — one from our cosmic history and one by measuring native stars — that show us our Universe’s age is between thirteen and fourteen billion years. Today it is widely accepted that our universe in 13.772 billion years old with a possible error of 59 million years. However, there are a lot of observations and experiments going on to get more precise age of our universe

## Top 10 Science Experiments That Went Horribly Wrong and produce

While science has the ability to enhance our lives and cure illness, it also can be accustomed to torture, murder, and brainwashing. Science may be a force permanently in our world, risking lives of individuals all across Earth in immeasurable ways in which. However, it’s conjointly an awfully powerful tool which will become dangerous in some things. Particularly once it gets entangled in politics. At alternative times, science’s inherent ambition to push boundaries of what notable can even cause some heart-stopping moments.
The following list is in no method thoroughgoing however provides the North American nation with an area to begin once pondering the intense responsibility that comes with the march of science. Here are ten shivery experiments that destroyed lives, or have the potential to unleash doomsday:-

1. Elephant on meth

45 years before now, scientists conducted a cruel experiment to look at. However, the elephant would react to being given massive doses of a hallucinogenic drug. The elephant weighed 3 and a 0.5 tons and was administered enough hallucinogenic drug to create 3,000 humans perceive. The elephant was referred to as Trusko. Researchers from the University of Oklahoma injected him with the drug and he instantly began to panic and stampeded around his pen for many minutes, then folded. It’s probably the medication killed, however, some theorize the medication the scientists accustomed tries to revive might have contributed to his death. The researchers were making an attempt to force the elephant to travel into phase.

1. Edison’s lethal mistake

Edison worked on several experiments throughout his life; however, this is often one he’ll always remember. Carriage Dally associate degree Yankee glass-blower and inventor assistant whereas he was researching and experimenting with X-rays. The inventor was unaware of the risks and innocently experimented on the carriage. In 1895 carriage was poisoned by the consequences of the X-ray. In 1900 carriage was suffering radiation harm to his hands and face, and had to go away work. All of Clarence’s multiple treatments were unsuccessful; carriage lost his menus and eventually died of healthful Cancer. The inventor then abandoned his work on X-ray, and refused to speak concerning it voice communication, “Don’t sit down with American state concerning X-rays, I’m frightened of them.”

1. Doctor’s insane studies

Ffirth was a novice doctor known for his insane method of finding out yellow fever. Whereas treating patients throughout a plague of yellow fever he detected there have been abundant fewer infections throughout the winter. In reality, this is often a result of the illness is unfold by mosquitoes that hibernate throughout weather. Firth didn’t understand this and set it absolutely was as a result of the illness wasn’t contagious.

To prove this he visited nice lengths, he tried to require infecting himself with yellow jack in any method attainable. He drank the vomit of the victims, injected it into his body, poured it into his eyes, and breathed within the fumes. This gave the impression toprove the illness isn’t contagious however sadly; he solely dodged infection as a result of vomit he used was from patients within the late stage of the illness that isn’t contagious.

1. Stanford Prison Experiment

The Stanford jail experiment employed twenty-two male school students for per week and got them to require half during a psychological experiment. [*fr1] the scholars were arbitrarily allotted as prisoners and therefore the spouse as guards. The guards were taken to the jail daily before the experiment began to spot their uniforms, and set the place up. This created the guards feel as if they closely-held the jail. The prisoners were told to remain reception until somebody came to choose them up. They were then picked up and in remission by the police in a variety of all their neighbours and transported to the jail. The guards might run the jail anyway they needed and there weren’t any rules the least bit relating to the treatment of the prisoners.

On a primary day, nothing very happened and therefore the experiment was nearly known as off. Following morning the prisons started acting up and making an attempt to revolt. The guards set to do and keep them in line, they force prisoners out of their cells, stripped them naked, and so tied their feet up. The guards perceived to become utterly completely different folks when solely daily of power. They treated the prisoners cruelly and told them that food, and water was privileging whereas thinking of the many artistic ways that to psychologically torture them. Several of the prisoners had complete mental breakdowns, those that didn’t become zombies, senselessly obeying and repetition what the guards told them. The experiment had to be reduced for the prisoners’ safety.

1. Sketchy Biosphere

In 1991 five scientists lived in isolation in an exceedingly independent region referred to as region two. They created an enormous facility, over three acres, and also thescientists would grow their own crops and plants. The ability was fully airtight, and most of the O came from flora. The experiment was extremely promulgated and also the participants became celebrities for a short while before they entered the ability.

Barely any footage was shown of the experiment however part way through one person had to go away as a result of that they had accidentally cut themselves, and so came carrying a duffle of what individuals speculated were provides. This ruined the validity of the take a look at for plenty of individuals. Individuals additionallydetected that they deceitfully used a greenhouse emission scrubber. Most of the participants it clad had very little tutorial coaching. Eventually, it lost all quality and even was placed on a listing of the one hundred worst experiments of the century.

1. Pit of Doom

Psychologist Harry Harlean Carpenter evoked emotional disorder in monkeys by taking young macaques that had secure with their mother and inserting them in complete isolation, in an exceedingly darkened cage, for up to 10 weeks. At intervals some days, they became psychotic, and most couldn’t be treated.

In 2007, drug trials started for THN1412, a cancer of the blood treatment. It had been tested antecedently in animals and was found fully safe. Generally, a drug is deemed safe to check on humans once it’s found to be nonlethal to animals. Once testing began in human subjects, the humans got doses five hundred times under found safe for animals. Even so, this drug, safe for animals, caused harmful organ failure to take a look at subjects. Here the distinction between animals and humans was deadly.

1. Shock experiments

The disreputable “shock” experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram within theSixties showed simply, however, way folks would go once ordered to harm someone else by Associate in nursing authority. The well-known psychological study brought in volunteers World Health Organization thought they were collaborating in Associate in nursing experiment wherever they’d deliver shocks to a different take a look at the subject. A doctor requested that they deliver larger and larger shocks; even once the “test subject” began to scream in pain and (in some cases) die.

In reality, the experiment was to examine however tractable folks would be once a doctor told them to try to one thing that was clearly horrific and probably fatal. Severalparticipants within the experiments were willing to shock the “test subjects” (actors employed by Milgram) until they believed those subjects were injured or dead. Later, several participants claimed they were traumatized always when discovering that they were capable of such insensate behaviour.

1. Freud’s diagnosis

In the late nineteenth century, Eckstein came to Freud to be treated for a nervous unhealthiness. He diagnosed her with hysteria and excessive masturbation. His friend WillhelmFleis believed that hysteria and excessive masturbation may be treated by cauterizing the nose, thus he performed associate degree operation on Eckstein wherever he primarily burned her nasal passages. She suffered horrific infections and was left for good ugly as Fleiss had left surgical gauze in her nasal passage. Alternativeladies suffered through similar experiments.

1. Operation Cirrus

In the late Forties, the U.S. tried to divert the trail of hurricanes by seeding the storms with solid. When scientists poured one hundred eighty pounds of solid into a cyclonemoving east into the Atlantic Ocean, the cyclone created an especially unpredictable move — and adjusted directions. The cyclone collided with the city of Savannah, Georgia — no trespasser to uncommon government intrusions, killing a minimum of one person and inflicting over \$200 million in injury.

## Conclusion

Disturbing human experiments aren’t one thing the common person thinks an excessive amount of concern. Rather, the progress achieved within the last Associate in Nursing fifty years of human history is an accomplishment we’re reminded of virtually daily. Achievements created in fields like biomedicine and psychological science mean that we tend to not got to worry concerning things like deadly diseases or autoerotism a style of mental illness. For higher or worse, we’ve got developed simpler ways that to assemble info, treat skin abnormalities, and even kill one another. However what we tend to don’t seem to be perpetually reminded of area unit the human lives that are broken or lost within the name of this progress.

## The Enduring Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil’s Triangle has been the topic of controversies and mysteries and several tales to this day. Even its location is a topic of great mystery and confusion to this day. It is rumoured to be located in the Atlantic Ocean bordered by a line from Florida to the Bermuda islands, to Puerto Rico and then back to Florida.

The term “Bermuda Triangle” was initially employed in a piece written by Vincent H.Gaddis for Argosy magazine in 1964.

In the article, Gaddis claimed that during this strange ocean variety of ships and planes had disappeared while not clarification.

Gaddis wasn’t the primary one to return to the present conclusion, either.

As early as 1952, George X. Sands, during a report in Fate magazine, noted what sounded like a bizarrely sizable amount of strange accidents in this region.

Why do ships and planes seem to disappear in the region? Some authors theorize it may be due to a strange magnetic anomaly that affects compass calculations (in fact they claim Columbus noted this when he sailed through the area in 1492).

## Scientific Explanations

“Rogue waves are one clarification and that they do occur within Bermuda’s region however by no suggests that unambiguously here — they’re much more common off the Cape of fine Hope,” explained Dr Boxall, A man of science and principal teacher at the U.K.’s University of Southampton. “They were things of story and sailors’ tales, however since the introduction of satellite systems capable of activity waves there are variations as huge as thirty m (100 feet) measured and verified.”

The rapscallion waves return and go terribly at random and quickly however are continually a part of a storm, in line with Boxall. “The heroic tale moving picture of a flat calm ocean with a 100ft wave touch the liner out of the blue is a story,” he told Fox News via email. The rapscallion waves, he added, wouldn’t deter him from taking a cruise.

The analysis was bestowed as a part of “The Bermuda Triangle Enigma,” a Channel five documentary series.

Boxall conjointly cited busy maritime traffic within the Bermuda Triangle because the key thinks about its name.
“The space lined by constellation accounts for nearly a 3rd of all in private owned vessels within the U.S.,” he said. “The 2016 armed service annual report shows that during this space eighty two % of all incidents involving marine traffic of any kind were caused by folks with no expertise or coaching. The numbers represent themselves on why such a large amount of incidents occur here.”

## Conspiracy theories of Bermuda Triangle

1. Gas Trapped

A large amount of methane gas is thought to exist below the bottom at bay within the sediments in a type of paraffin hydrates. If such gas finds its solution and starts rising through the water, it will considerably scale back the density of water therein space. And ships passing over that space will sink in no time. Such gas, when unleashed, can even produce explosions and saturate the atmosphere with methane gas inflicting planes to crash.

1. Strange clouds

Scientists have noticed the formation of strange hexangular formed clouds with straight edges on the Atlantic Ocean. This is often an odd and rare phenomenon. Meteorologists make sure from alternative such formations of cloud at sea and evidence shown by satellite pictures that they’re like air bombs. The air bombs will blast and send winds to the ocean at a lower place at speeds of up to one hundred seventy miles per hour which might be dangerous for craft or ships passing through it.

Additionally, such air bomb explosion will produce mammoth waves as high as 45-foot and ocean surface wind of regarding a hundred miles per hour that can also be very dangerous.

1. Underwater reefs

The island, additionally called the ‘Isle of the devils’, forms one corner of a constellation and is found regarding 650 miles off the geographic region of America. It’s an incontrovertible fact that the island is utterly ringed by varied shipwrecks that lie at the bottom near its shores. If truth be told there are over three hundred ships that destroyed inside two hundred sq. miles of water space encompassing island.

So why the bottom here has become a ships’ graveyard? the solution is thought… there are varied underneath water reefs encompassing island that rise from the lowest of the ocean and stay perilously hidden under the water surface. Not too way back the captains of the ships had to believe entirely on compass and guidance charts (and sometimes on the position of the stars) to navigate through the ocean to achieve their destinations. And unwittingly once the ships ignored such hidden reefs, usually, the hulls of the ships were torn apart by treacherous reefs, sinking them in no time.

With the advancement of technology and the use of contemporary GPS systems, these reefs will currently be noticed and avoided. Several of such wrecks these days are renowned sites for skin diving.

1. Strange whirlpools

A strange development has been noticed in the Bahama Islands that is found at the western corner of the area and concerning fifty miles off the coast of FL. There are whirlpools here with terribly sturdy periodic event currents flowing in and out of them. Any ships passing over them will simply get sucked in and into the endless depths here.

In fact, such phenomena have been legendary to the natives here since ages associate degree associate degree ancient belief says there’s an underwater monster that breathes in and out. Throughout inhalation, it will suck in folks simply or perhaps ships. But the important facts have currently been legendary.

There are literally several Blue Holes in Bahama Islands water space… these are giant underwater caves or cavities that are shaped through earth science transformations. These bottle formed caves that have their openings close to the water surface will have depths of 100s of feet. The most important such Blue Hole in Bahama Islands (and second deepest within the world) is Dean’s Blue Hole. it’s a depth of 663ft.

Divers have discovered that deep below within the Blue Holes, there are several lateral tunnels that have originated from the walls of the blue hole (i.e. from walls of the most underwater cave) and that they last miles in numerous directions. Water flows in and out of those lateral tunnels throughout the tide amendment which truly causes the periodic event currents on the ocean surface and also the whirlpools. And these whirlpools may be extraordinarily dangerous for ships passing over them or perhaps close to their edge.

1. Compass anomalies

Do you understand that magnetic and absolute North isn’t identical? Which implies that the north wherever a compass points and therefore the absolute geographic north that is that the North Pole is completely different. Therefore ships got to create an adjustment for this distinction to stay in the correct direction. However, in the area, there’s a slim strip wherever each these North’s become identical. Some claim that such Compass Variation may are the cause for fatal accidents as ships didn’t verify the right direction.

1. Strange weather

At times there are violent storms within the Atlantic space. These short however intense storms will build up quickly and depart thus quick that even a satellite cannot discover them properly. However, these storms are robust enough to destroy ships or planes utterly. There are waterspouts seen during this space. A waterspout is sort of a tornado baffled that sucks water from the ocean thousands of feet into the sky.

Hurricanes are extraordinarily powerful whirling storms that generally seem within the Atlantic close to the equator. they typically originate from south Japanese Atlantic and have the Atlantic space towards the south Japanese coast of the U.S.A. June to Gregorian calendar month is that the time once a chance of such cyclone occurring is that the most.

Such hurricanes have traditionally been the cause for loss of the many lives and in-depth harm. The sinking of Francisco Delaware Bobadilla’s Spanish fleet in 1502 was the primary recorded instance of such damaging cyclone. Hurricanes have within the past caused a variety of fatal damages to the sailing vessels passing through the realm.

1. What lies at the bottom?

The seafloor in country space is additionally found to be quite strange. The technology of measuring device mapping (using sound waves) has been utilized by the scientists to grasp the depth of the seafloor at varied places within the triangle. Some uncommon formations are found. At varied places from a mild slope, the seafloor takes an unforeseen deep drop. In fact, a number of the deepest trenches within the world are found during this space. Ships or planes that sink into these deep trenches can in all probability ne’er be found as they’re just about inaccessible.

One such space is at the Bahamas that is found at the western corner of the area. It’s been found that at some specific water areas here, the seafloor suddenly dips to a colossal depth of fifteen thousand ft.

Scientists conjointly speculate that there are often giant deep ocean craters on the ocean floor of the country. This may be caused by a great number of oil leaks or exploding of gas that was cornered at totally different layers below the ocean floor. Such large craters (about a mile wide and 150ft deep) have already been discovered at Barent Ocean off the coast of Noreg in March 2016. Similar such deep ocean craters are seemingly to exist in country furthermore as a result of the ocean floor within the space is thought to contain a great amount of gas. If a ship is destroyed because of gas blow out or the other reason and drops into the crater, it will simply disappear while not effort any trace.

## Wrapping it UP!!!

As a kid, many have revealed within the mysteries of the Atlantic, gushing over literature that told of ghost ships, of planes disappearing forever, of instruments going haywire. Even adults, with pictures from their youth clear in their head, many have spent a lot of time at intervals the boundaries of the alarming Triangle, a swath of the ocean between Bermuda. Let’s hope one day we can solve with actual evidence of the great mystery that is Bermuda Triangle.