Login with your Social Account

The strange behaviour of the oobleck can now be predicted by researchers

The strange behavior of the Oobleck can now be predicted by researchers

Oobleck is a strange material that is also referred to as a non-Newtonian fluid. This weird substance behaves sometimes as a liquid and a solid the other times. It is made of water and corn-starch entertaining children for many hours. If it is punched it appears to be solid but if picked up it flows away. 

Scientists at MIT have studied the magic substance and published a 3D mathematical model that can predict when the oobleck can change from solid to a liquid and vice versa. The findings are published in the PNAS journal. 

The scientists explain that the fine particle suspensions demonstrate drastic changes in viscosity on shear which produces interesting behavior. This is captivating to both children and rheologists. In the model, researchers have introduced a 3D continuum model with the help of mixture theory coupling the particle and fluid phases. 

The term oobleck is derived from a green substance in the book Bartholomew and the Oobleck authored by Dr. Seuss. This has fascinated researchers for a long period of time as its behavior depends on the way it is interacted with. 

The size of the particles plays an important role in this ability of the non-Newtonian fluids. The particles of corn starch are a fraction of the size of a sand grain, so due to their small size, they can be influenced by the temperature and electric charges around them. On moving slowly through the oobleck, the grains repel each other however on hitting it fast, the particles touch giving the feel of a solid. According to Ken Kamrin, mechanical engineer, MIT although this can be created very easily the rules governing it are complex.

This research can be mostly considered as a recreational work, scientists think that this modeling can be used to test oobleck for several materials such as bulletproof vests. Although it is an important question if it can stop a bullet. 

Researchers had been working on a model for wet sand but had to change it to obtain the desired oobleck variables. They ran experiments to check if the model was perfect, such as squeezing it between plates and shooting a projectile to a tank having the substance. An X shaped wheel ran through the material at different speeds to help understand the behavior. The model was able to predict the change of oobleck from liquid to solid substance and vice versa as the wheel rolled back. 

Journal Reference: PNAS


A new quantum measurement protocol

Researchers develop new measurement protocol for quantum particles

A new protocol for measurement developed at TU Wien will help in the measurement of the quantum phase of electrons. This is a significant step in attosecond physics. The work appears in the Physical Review Letters.

The current methods in attosecond physics help to measure very short intervals of time. We can track physical processes with very high precision, attoseconds to be precise which is equal to billionths of a billionth of a second.

This can be done using short laser pulses. The ionisation of one atom can be studied along with the process in which an electron exits the atom. Electrons do not always display the particle properties since the quantum-physical wave behaviour plays a major role. It is a wave oscillating in a very short time scale. The task to measure the cycle duration of such oscillations is challenging, however, it is even more difficult to measure the phase. Questions such as how would the electron waves oscillate if an electron can be ionized in two ways get quite tricky. 

A group of researchers from TU Wien and CREOL College, University of Central Florida has developed a protocol for measuring the phase of the electron waves. This can help in understanding photovoltaics in a better manner. 

Stefan Donsa, a team member working under Prof. Joachim Burgdörfer, Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien mentioned that a wave consists of crests and troughs. Its phase tells the location of these points in space and time. Perfect overlapping of quantum waves, such that every wave peak meets a wave peek of other one adds up the waves, on the other hand, if the crest superimposes with the trough then they get cancelled. Hence phase shifts are very important in quantum physics. For this, a reference clock is needed that can make sure the overlap occurs at the exact time without any shift. The latest measurement protocol uses an atomic process as a reference for the other one. 

Helium atoms have been studied in computer simulations where a photon absorption results in emission of an electron. This ejected electron has a certain phase that is difficult to measure. The trick of the new method is to add a second quantum effect serving as a clock, i.e. a quantum metronome. The atom can absorb two photons instead of one under specific conditions. It leads to the same event, an electron emitted with particular energy but this can be measured as it has a different phase. Complicated protocols are needed in attosecond physics. Although there are many such protocols, none allows for the direct measurement of the phase of electron. 

Stefan Donsa said that this measurement protocol allows for the translation of information about an electron phase to its spatial distribution by a combination of special laser pulses. The right laser pulses can help in getting the phase information from the electron’s angular distribution. 

The protocols have to be experimented now to identify which quantum mechanical information can actually be obtained. 

Journal Reference: Physical Review Letters.

Time reversibility might be the reason why gamma rays seem to travel backwards

Time reversibility might be the reason why gamma-rays seem to travel backward

It is known that time can move in only one direction. However, last year scientists detected some events in which the gamma-ray bursts seemed to repeat as if they were moving backward in time. 

New research suggests the potential answer to the cause of this time reversibility effect. If the waves in the relativistic jets producing gamma-ray bursts propagate faster than light at what is known as “superluminal speeds”, then one of its possible effects could be time reversibility. The work appears in The Astrophysical Journal. 

When light travels through a medium, the phase velocity is lesser than the light’s speed in a vacuum, which is the ultimate speed barrier in the Universe. Hence a wave could move through gamma-ray burst jet at superluminal speeds without violating relativity. The most energetic explosions in the Universe are gamma-ray bursts. While they can last a time span ranging milliseconds to hours, they are very bright and till now no concrete reason for their cause is found.

From 2017 observations of colliding neutron stars, it is known that gamma-ray bursts can be created from these collisions. When a huge, violently spinning star collapses to black hole resulting in the ejection of material in a colossal hypernova then these bursts can be produced. Then the black hole is surrounded by the accretion material around the equator. With quick rotation, the exploded material falls back resulting in relativistic jets from the polar regions. It blasts through the outer envelope of the star resulting in gamma-ray bursts. 

Particles can move faster than light when traveling through a medium. This causes Cherenkov radiation which is viewed as a blue glow, also known as a luminal boom. When particles such as electrons travel faster than the phase velocity of light in the medium then the glow is produced. 

Scientists Jon Hakkila, College of Charleston and Robert Nemiroff, Michigan Technological University think that the same effect is responsible for gamma-ray burst jets. They have created mathematical modeling to demonstrate it. They mention in their model that an impactor wave in a gamma-ray burst either propagates from subluminal to superluminal velocities or decelerates vice-versa. This impactor wave interacts with the medium resulting in Cherenkov radiation when moving faster than light’s speed in the medium or creates a synchrotron shock radiation when moving slower than the light’s speed. 

A time-forward and time-reversed set of light curve features are created by the transitions by relativistic image doubling. When a charged particle enters the water near to light’s speed, it moves faster than Cherenkov radiation resulting in the illusion of appearing at two places simultaneously, one seems to travel ahead in time and one backward. 

This has not yet been observed experimentally. If verified it might be responsible for the time-reversibility in gamma-ray burst light curves. 

Researchers made an assumption that impactor creating gamma-ray burst would be a wave of a large scale produced by changes of the magnetic field. More analysis is needed in this direction. Since the model includes time-reversibility it explains gamma-ray bursts much better than those which don’t. 

Reference: The Astrophysical Journal.

CERN Experiment reveals rare particle decay events

CERN Experiment reveals rare particle decay events

Scientists at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) have been running an experiment for several years to record billions of particles breaking apart. They finally have some interesting results to share with the world. 

The experiment named NA62 has involved scientists creating and destroying quark pairs known as kaons hoping for an event with a probability of one in a billion to verify the predictions of the Standard Model in particle physics. They managed to find one last year and now they have added two more. These findings were presented in the CERN Seminar and it was based on the data collected in 2017, ten times more than the amount which was collected the year before. 

The start has been positive for NA62 but for verification of results, researchers need some more examples of positively charged kaon decaying to form a positively charged pion and neutrino-antineutrino pair.

There are two possible results of this massive accelerator experiment. The first is that the immensely rare K+ decay occurs according to the prediction of the Standard Model essentially verifying it. The second possibility is that after the statistical calculation on the recombination of positively charged quark pairs to other particles, researchers find that things do not add up.

The Standard Model does not explain phenomena such as dark matter, antimatter and the mass difference in the fundamental particles. If some events occur which cannot be predicted by it then it can lead to the second version of the Standard Model. 

Kaons played an important role in the physics of the Standard Model. So discovering some irregularities about its behavior could have some serious consequences. Cristina Lazzeroni, NA62 spokesperson and physicist at the University of Birmingham said that the kaon decay process is named as “the golden channel” as it is ultra-rare and also predicted very well in the Standard Model. 

These experiments require huge efforts. A powerful synchrotron is used for shooting protons at high speeds into a target made of beryllium metal. Amidst the billion particles, around 60,000,000 are converted to kaons. They are channeled off for analysis of their decay and identify if any rare transformation occurred. To avoid any risk bias, the researchers go through a blind phase where they analyze the entire field of particles before turning to the areas where they expect to find the important signal. To understand how the rare event occurs and to find its frequency, a high amount of math is involved in its extreme precision. 

Till now, the evidence suggests that K+ will turn to a pion, neutrino, and antineutrino a maximum of 24.4 out of one hundred billion decays which is in fair range with the prediction of Standard Model, 8.4 times out of a hundred billion. 

The hunt is not yet finished as only three unusual K+ decay events have been identified. Many more particle collisions have to be analyzed but this will wait till 2021 when the super proton collider will be again started by CERN. 

Lazzeroni said that the results have limited statistics but have helped in putting constraints on new models. 

Second-fastest, gamma rays pulsations detected

Second-fastest, gamma rays pulsations detected

An international research group led by the Hannover-based Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics found that the J0952-0607 radio pulsar also emits pulsed gamma radiation. J0952-0607 spins 707 times in a second.  This remains second in the list of fast-paced neutron stars. By analyzing about 8.5 years’ worth of data from NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, LOFAR radio observations from the past two years, observations from two large optical telescopes, and gravitational-wave data from the LIGO detectors, the team used approach to study the binary system of the pulsar and its lightweight companion in detail.

The gamma radiation of millisecond pulsar PSR J0952−0607 is so weak, it requires some smart, innovative exploration techniques to be detected-and these enabled original star measurements.

Pulsars are a type of dead star called neutron stars, the end result of a star that’s too massive to become a white dwarf, and not extensive enough to become a black hole. But the rotation of these pulsars is such that, as they spin, they sweep Earth with a beam of radiation, sometimes on timescales, so that are so precise they can help us measure the Universe.

Some of these pulsars are rotating so fast, and they go round on millisecond scales; fittingly, we call those millisecond pulsars, and they are usually found with a binary companion. It’s thought that their rotation speeds up as they absorb material away from that companion.

Pulsars are the compact remains of stellar explosions that have strong magnetic fields and are rapidly rotating. They emit radiation like a cosmic lighthouse and can be observable as radio pulsars and gamma-ray pulsars depending on their bearings towards Earth.

gamma rays

(Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Cruz deWilde)

As per the official Fermi website in 2016, 17 percent of millisecond pulsars have been detected emitting gamma rays, compared to just 3 percent of the average pulsar population.

But PSR J0952−0607 is one of the most extreme yet, second only to PSR J1748-2446ad, discovered in 2006 to be rocketing around at 716 rotations per second.

It’s also what we term a “black widow”. The pulsar is 1.4 times the mass of the Sun, squished down into that teeny tiny diameter, with a binary companion around 0.02 times the mass of the Sun. What makes it a black widow is that insanely low binary companion mass: the pulsar has slurped up most of its companion. When the pulsar was discovered in 2017 earlier, there were no gamma rays detected emanating from the pulsars. The pulsar in itself was found using the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) radio telescope. This search for gamma-ray emissions was conducted using the robust Atlas Computing Cluster. And it found the signal – but something, Nieder said, was awry.

No gamma-ray pulsations before July 2011:

The news then came with another surprise that it was impossible to detect gamma-ray pulsations from the pulsar in the data from before July 2011. The reason for why the pulsar only seems to show pulsations after that date remains unknown. Variations in how much gamma rays it emitted might be one reason, but the pulsar is so faint that it was not possible to test this hypothesis with sufficient accuracy. Changes in the pulsar orbit seen in similar systems might also explain, but there was not even a hint in the data that this was happening.

Journal Reference: The Astrophysical Journal.

Topological behavior of electrons in 3-D magnetic material discovered by Physicists

Topological behavior of electrons in 3-D magnetic material discovered

A team of international researchers that were led by Scientists at Princeton University have made an exciting discovery. Their discovery tells us that a magnetic material at room temperature enables the particles of electrons to act counterintuitively and to collaborate rather than in singles. Their collective behavior imitates massless particles and anti-particles coexisting unexpectedly and forming an exotic loop-like framework together.

Topology, which a branch of mathematics already known to play an active part in dictating electron conduct in crystals forms the basis for this research and is the key to this conduct. Topological materials in the form of light, or photons, may contain massless particles. The electrons often act like slow-down light in a topological crystal, yet, unlike light, carry an electrical charge.

Topology has acutely seldom been observed in magnetic materials, and the finding of magnetic topological material at room temperature is a step forward. It could unlock new approaches to harnessing topological materials for future technological applications.

Topology in magnetic materials has rarely been found, and finding a magnetic topological material at room temperature is a step advancing that could unlock new solutions to the use of topological components for prospective technological applications.

“Before this job, there was uncertain proof of the topological properties of three-dimensional magnets, which gives us immediate and decisive proof at the microscopic level for this phenomenon,” said Zahid Hasan, who led the work as the Eugene Higgins Professor of Physics at Princeton. “This work opens a fresh continent for topological magnet discovery.”

Zahid Hasan and his team of scientists have dedicated almost a decade studying candidate materials in the search for a topological magnetic quantum state.


Thousands of magnetic materials exist, but many of them did not have the correct properties, the researchers found. The magnets were additionally challenging to synthesize, the magnetism was not sufficiently well recognized, the magnetic structure was complicated to model theoretically, or no conclusive experimental signatures of the topology could be observed.

“After studying many magnetic materials, we performed a measurement on a class of room-temperature magnets and surprisingly saw indications of massless electrons,” answered Ilya Belopolski, a postdoctoral researcher in Hasan’s laboratory and co-first author of the study. “That set us on the path to the discovery of the earliest three-dimensional topological magnetic phase.”

The exotic magnetic crystal consists of cobalt, manganese, and gallium, arranged in an orderly, repeating three-dimensional pattern. To examine the material’s topological state, the researchers used a technique called angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In this experiment, high-intensity light shines on the sample, forcing electrons to release from the surface. These emitted electrons can then be measured, providing information about the way the particles behaved when they were inside the crystal.

An essential aspect of the result is that the material retains its magnetism up to 400 degrees Celsius well above room temperature, satisfying a vital requirement for real-world technological applications.


Researcher’s produce synthetic hall effect

Researcher’s produce synthetic hall effect

Researchers at the Urbana-Champaign’s University of Illinois replicated one of physics’ most well-known electromagnetic effects, the Hall Effect, using radio waves (photons) instead of electrical current (electrons). Their method could be used to produce sophisticated communication schemes that increase signal transmission in one direction while absorbing signals in the opposite direction at the same time.


Edwin Hall found the Hall Effect in 1879 due to the interaction between charged particles and electromagnetic fields. In an electrical area, negatively charged particles (electrons) experience a force contrary to the field direction. Moving electrons in a magnetic field experience a force perpendicular to both their movement and the magnetic field in the course. In the Hall Effect, where perpendicular electrical and magnetic fields combine to produce an electrical current, these two forces merge. Light is not loaded, so it is not possible to use periodic electrical and magnetic fields to provide an equivalent “current of light.”

Researchers such as Gaurav Bahl have been efficiently working on numerous methods to improve radio and optical data transmission combined with fiber optic communication.

The team used the interaction between light and sound waves earlier this year to suppress the dispersion of light from material defects and released its outcomes in Optica. In 2018, team member Christopher Peterson was the lead author in a document on Science Advances, explaining a technology that promises to halve the communications bandwidth by enabling an antenna to simultaneously send and receive signals on the same frequency through a method called nonreciprocal coupling.

Researcher’s produce synthetic hall effect

(Credits: University of Illinois)

By developing a specially constructed circuit to improve the interaction between these synthesized areas and radio waves, the team used the Hall Effect principle to increase radio signals in one direction, increase their power, while also stopping and absorbing messages in the other. Their tests showed that with the correct mixture of synthetic areas, signals could be transferred as efficiently in one direction as in the opposite direction through the loop more than 1000-times. Their study could be used to create new equipment that safeguards radio wave sources from possibly damaging interference or help guarantee delicate mechanical quantities.

The team is also operating on experiments that continue the concept to other kinds of waves, including light and mechanical vibrations, as they look to establish a new class of devices based on applying the Hall Effect outside of its original domain.

Journal Reference: Physical Review Letter

k2-18b water discovery

Water discovered on an exoplanet

In a fascinating discovery, astronomers found water in a planet’s atmosphere orbiting a far-flung star outside our solar system with Earth-like temperatures that could sustain life. This exoplanet is almost 110 light-years away from our world, and the discovery of water is rather exciting.

According to the research released in the journal Nature Astronomy, K2-18b is eight times the Earth’s mass. It is now the only exoplanet known to have water and temperatures possibly inhabitable. Unlike other giant exoplanets where atmospheric water has been detected, K2-18b could be rocky and rugged like Earth, Venus, and Mars.

Researchers said the planet orbits the cool dwarf star K2-18, which is in the Leo constellation.

“Finding water in a potentially habitable world other than Earth is incredibly compelling,” remarked author Angelos Tsiaras from the University College London (UCL) in the UK.

“K2-18b is not’ Earth 2.0′ as it is significantly heavier and has a different atmospheric composition. However, it brings us closer to answering the fundamental question: Is the Earth unique?” adds Tsiaras.

K2-18b was discovered in 2015. Since then, it has been researched on, and it was a bit of a tricky exoplanet to explore. We understand this rounds up quite carefully around a red dwarf star named K2-18, completing the round every 33 days. Furthermore, the stellar rates of radiation on the planet are comparable to those on Earth (except for the elevated flare activity typical of red dwarfs).

We also understand that the planet’s size is about twice as large as the earth, and about eight times the mass. Astronomers have even reduced the planet to two kinds. In 2017, a team concluded, either a rocky, atmospheric planet like Earth but more massive, or a world with a mostly watery interior covered by a dense ice shell, like Enceladus or Europa.

Kepler space telescope which used to identify planets using the transit method recognized this planet. This is possible when the star, planet and earth are in the same line. The light coming from the star is monitored and when the planet passes in between star and earth (transit), we can see a dip in star’s light. This can give us a lot of data.

It can also support us in studying the atmosphere of a planet. If the light from the star moves through specific wavelengths, certain gasses can absorb them, thus, creating a range of lines. These can be decided by comparing a spectral star profile with a spectral transit profile.

It isn’t simple, however. Even the first detection of the planet needs extremely delicate instruments to detect starry dips, as well as remarkably faint spectral absorption lines.

Tsiaras and his team used the WFC3 device on the Hubble space telescope. They pictured eight transits of the planet in front of the star, bringing them together to generate a weighted average, thereby producing the planet’s spectral profile.

After this, they had to understand what the spectral star profile conveyed through modeling.

Originally, they ran K2-18b atmosphere models with a range of atmospheric molecules that could produce absorption lines, comprising water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3).

In the planet’s spectrum, only water could be recognized with confidence. Keeping this in mind, the team developed their analysis, now using water solely as a trace gas.

They then formed the atmosphere by applying three different approaches: cloudless, with water vapor in a hydrogen-helium atmosphere; cloudless, with water vapour, hydrogen-helium, and molecular nitrogen; and then cloudy, with water vapour and hydrogen-helium.

All three simulations produced a statistically notable atmosphere at high-resolution levels, with values so similar they couldn’t quite distinguish the three basic types.

We need a lot more data to confirm things and probably the next-generation space telescopes like James Webb telescope might clarify things

Journal Reference: Water vapour in the atmosphere of the habitable-zone eight-Earth-mass planet K2-18 b

Researchers plan to release black hole movie soon

Researchers plan to release black hole movie soon

Before releasing the first-ever image of a black hole, an international team of researchers were already scheduling a movie sequel depicting how huge clouds of gas are permanently absorbed into the void. The required observations have already been recorded by the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration and scientists are currently processing the data for the release of the first video in 2020.

Shep Doeleman, the project director is hopeful that by the end of the next decade, it would be possible to make real-time movies of black holes that depict their action at a cosmic stage beside their appearance.

The complete group of 347 scientists from around the world won $3 million and were awarded the Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics for the so-called “Oscar of science” image. Doeleman, a 52-year-old cosmologist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics and the father of two joked that his wife might be finally convinced that he was doing something worthwhile as he worked on this for more than 20 years.

Astronomers did not have the sharpness in their images to detect the shape of the light which was being swallowed by the black holes. After the team linked multiple radio telescopes together, creating an Earth-sized massive telescope the barrier was finally overcome and thus objects that appear microscopic in the night sky could now be observed with high resolution.

The team used three telescopes to establish the evidence of concept and the first measurements of the black hole were published in 2008. They had combined eight radio telescopes in Chile, Spain, Mexico, the US, and the South Pole by April 2017. The astronomers were able to observe the boundaries of the black holes by using these massive instruments which observe high-frequency radio waves.

The group also observed the center of our own Milky Way: Sagittarius-A* in addition to its observations of the black hole in the Messier 87 (M87) galaxy. Doeleman explained that while orbits of matter around Sagittarius-A* takes only half an hour and can change during one night of observation, it takes about a month to orbit around M87. He also added that the first cut of the movie could be made by 2020 and researchers would need more telescopes on Earth as well as in orbit, to strengthen the resolution.

Doeleman is optimistic about the possibility of future funding from governments as well as possibly from private donors after the first image of M87 captured people’s imagination. He also said that the EHT has added more value than any other scientific project in history. As explorers, they are reporting what they have observed at the edges of the black hole with their instruments.


Nanowires replace Newton’s famous glass prism

The device, made from a single nanowire 1000 times thinner than a human hair, is the smallest spectrometer ever designed. It could be used in potential applications such as assessing the freshness of foods, the quality of drugs, or even identifying counterfeit objects, all from a smartphone camera. Details are reported in the journal Science.

In the 17th century, Isaac Newton, through his observations on the splitting of light by a prism, sowed the seeds for a new field of science studying the interactions between light and matter – spectroscopy. Today, optical spectrometers are essential tools in industry and almost all fields of scientific research. Through analysing the characteristics of light, spectrometers can tell us about the processes within galactic nebulae, millions of light years away, down to the characteristics of protein molecules.

However, even now, the majority of spectrometers are based around principles similar to what Newton demonstrated with his prism: the spatial separation of light into different spectral components. Such a basis fundamentally limits the size of spectrometers in respect: they are usually bulky and complex, and challenging to shrink to sizes much smaller than a coin. Four hundred years after Newton, University of Cambridge researchers have overcome this challenge to produce a system up to a thousand times smaller than those previously reported.

The Cambridge team, working with colleagues from the UK, China and Finland, used a nanowire whose material composition is varied along its length, enabling it to be responsive to different colours of light across the visible spectrum. Using techniques similar to those used for the manufacture of computer chips, they then created a series of light-responsive sections on this nanowire.

“We engineered a nanowire that allows us to get rid of the dispersive elements, like a prism, producing a far simpler, ultra-miniaturised system than conventional spectrometers can allow,” said first author Zongyin Yang from the Cambridge Graphene Centre. “The individual responses we get from the nanowire sections can then be directly fed into a computer algorithm to reconstruct the incident light spectrum.”

“When you take a photograph, the information stored in pixels is generally limited to just three components – red, green, and blue,” said co-first author Tom Albrow-Owen. “With our device, every pixel contains data points from across the visible spectrum, so we can acquire detailed information far beyond the colours which our eyes can perceive. This can tell us, for instance, about chemical processes occurring in the frame of the image.”

“Our approach could allow unprecedented miniaturisation of spectroscopic devices, to an extent that could see them incorporated directly into smartphones, bringing powerful analytical technologies from the lab to the palm of our hands,” said Dr Tawfique Hasan, who led the study.

One of the most promising potential uses of the nanowire could be in biology. Since the device is so tiny, it can directly image single cells without the need for a microscope. And unlike other bioimaging techniques, the information obtained by the nanowire spectrometer contains a detailed analysis of the chemical fingerprint of each pixel.

The researchers hope that the platform they have created could lead to an entirely new generation of ultra-compact spectrometers working from the ultraviolet to the infrared range. Such technologies could be used for a wide range of consumer, research and industrial applications, including in lab-on-a-chip systems, biological implants, and smart wearable devices.

The Cambridge team has filed a patent on the technology, and hopes to see real-life applications within the next five years.

Zongyin Yang et al. ‘Single nanowire spectrometers.’ Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aax8814

Materials provided by the University of Cambridge