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How Solar Cells Work and are They Important for Our Future?

Solar cell technology: How it works and the future of sunshine

Why do we waste time drilling for oil and shoveling coal once there is a mammoth powerhouse within the sky up on top of us, causing out clean, non-stop energy for free? The Sun, an agitated ball of atomic energy, has enough fuel aboard to drive our scheme for an additional 5 billion years—and solar panels will flip this energy into an endless, convenient provider of electricity.

energy-generation-worldwide-by-wikipedia

Image Source: Wikipedia

Solar power might sound strange or futurist, however, it’s already quite commonplace. You may have a solar-powered quartz watch on your wrist joint or a solar-powered calculating machine. Many folks have solar-powered lights in their garden. Spaceships and satellites typically have solar panels on them too. The yank house agency NASA has even developed a solar-powered plane! As warming continues to threaten our surroundings, there looks very little doubt that solar energy can become a fair additional vital style of renewable energy within the future. However specifically will it work?

How much energy are we talking about?

Solar power is wonderful. On average, each square measure of layer receives 164 watts of alternative energy (a figure we’ll make a case for in additional detail during a moment). In alternative words, you may stand a very powerful (150 watt) lamp on each square measure of layer and lightweight up the entire planet with the Sun’s energy! Or, to place it otherwise, if we have a tendency to line only one p.c of the Sahara with solar panels, we have a tendency to may generate enough electricity to power the entire world. That is the smart factor concerning solar power: there is associate degree awful ton of it—much quite we have a tendency to may ever use.

But there is a drawback too. The energy the Sun sends out arrives on Earth as a combination of sunshine and warmth. each of those area units implausibly important—the light-weight makes plants grow, providing us with food, whereas the {warmth} keeps us warm enough to survive—but we will not use either the Sun’s light-weight or heat on to run a TV or an automobile. We have to search out how of changing alternative energy into alternative styles of energy we will use a lot of simple, like electricity and that is specifically what solar cells do.

What are solar cells?

Solar power is rattling. On average, every area unit of layer receives 164 watts of other energy (a figure we’ll build a case for an extra detail throughout a moment). In different words, you will stand an awfully powerful (150 watt) lamp on every area unit of layer and light-weight up the complete planet with the Sun’s energy! Or, to put it otherwise, if we have an inclination to line only 1 p.c of the Sahara Desert with solar panels, we have an inclination to could generate enough electricity to power the complete world. That’s the good issue regarding solar power: there’s academic degree awful ton of it—much quite we have an inclination to could ever use.

solar cell principle

Image Source : Wikipedia

But there’s a downside too. The energy the Sun sends out arrives on Earth as a mixture of sunshine and heat. every of these space units incredibly important—the light-weight makes plants grow, providing us with food, whereas the keeps us heat enough to survive—but we’ll not use either the Sun’s light-weight or heat on to run a TV or associate degree automobile. We’ve to look out however of fixing energy into different types of energy we’ll use a great deal of easy, like electricity. Which is specifically what solar cells do.

Just like the cells in a very battery, the cells in a very electrical device area unit designed to come up with electricity; however wherever a battery’s cells build electricity from chemicals, a solar panel’s cells generate power by capturing daylight instead. they’re generally known as electrical phenomenon (PV) cells as a result of they use daylight (“photo” comes from the Greek word for light) to form electricity (the word “voltaic” could be a relation to Italian electricity pioneer Alessandro Conte Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, 1745–1827).

We can think about light-weight as being made from little particles known as photons, therefore a beam of daylight is sort of a bright yellow hose shooting trillions upon trillions of photons our means. Stick a photovoltaic cell in its path and it catches these energetic photons and converts them into a flow of electrons—a current. Every cell generates a number of volts of electricity, therefore a solar panel’s job is to mix the energy made by several cells to form a helpful quantity of electrical current and voltage. Nearly all of today’s solar cells area unit made up of slices of Si (one of the foremost common chemical parts on Earth, found in sand), though as we’ll see shortly, a range of different materials is often used similarly (or instead). Once daylight shines on a photovoltaic cell, the energy it carries blasts electrons out of the Si. These are often forced to flow around an electrical circuit and power something that runs on electricity.

How do solar cells work?

Solar cells convert the sun’s energy or solar energy into electricity. Whether or not they’re adorning your calculator or orbiting our planet on satellites, they admit the photoelectrical effect: the flexibility of concern emit electrons once a light-weight is shone thereon.

Silicon is what’s called a semiconductor, which means that it shares a number of the properties of metals and a few of these of an electrical non-conductor, creating it a key ingredient in solar cells. Let’s take a better inspect what happens once the sun shines onto a cell.

solar-cell-working

Sunlight consists of minuscule particles known as photons, which radiate from the sun. As these hit the element atoms of the cell, they transfer their energy to lose electrons, sound them clean off the atoms. The photons might be compared to the white ball in an exceedingly game of pool that passes on its energy to the colored balls it strikes.

Freeing up electrons is but solely the work of a star cell: it then has to herd these stray electrons into an electrical current. This involves making an electrical imbalance at intervals the cell, that acts a small amount sort of a slope down that the electrons can flow within the same direction.

Creating this imbalance is formed attainable by the interior organization of element. Element atoms area unit organized along in an exceedingly tightly certain structure. By compression little quantities of different parts into this structure, 2 differing kinds of element area unit created: n-type, that has spare electrons, and p-type, that is missing electrons, going away ‘holes’ in their place.

When these 2 materials area unit placed facet by facet within a cell, the n-type element’s spare electrons skip filling the gaps within the p-type silicon. This suggests that the n-type element becomes charged, and therefore the p-type element is charged, making an electrical field across the cell. As a result of the element may be a semiconductor, it will act as a non-conductor, maintaining this imbalance.

As the photons smash the electrons of the element atoms, this field drives them on in an orderly manner, providing the electrical current to power calculators, satellites and everything in between.

Are solar cells important for our future?

Solar energy has unbroken our species alive for thousands of years: heat, light, and crops. However, harnessing this energy to come up with electricity is, relatively, a really recent development. Because the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge of Chemistry says, “The quantity of energy reaching the Earth’s surface each hour would meet the world’s current energy demands for a complete year… we have a tendency to not ought to gamble the lifestyles of future generations”. Additionally, technology is continually being improved and refined. But how, specifically, alternative energy be of profit in our lives and people of future generations worldwide?

The most obvious professionals of alternative energy, as we have a tendency to at solar Action Alliance indicate, a square measure that’s that it’s rife, property, free, secure, and reliable. Even in less sunny countries like the UK, there’s enough energy within the rays that reach the surface to come up with electricity. However, sunny locations like Calif., square measure ideal for a solar.

Just as individual households or businesses are able to do independence in reference to an influence provide, communities and cities will do a similar with whole communities living off-grid and being self-sustaining. In a world of restricted and strained resources, this can be a large advantage… and one that may be progressively necessary within the future.

Small, rural, and/or less affluent communities, regardless of however remote, won’t get to trust massive energy suppliers and their infrastructures or wait a protracted time for services to achieve them. Solar kits will reach any community and be fitted to homes, schools, clinics, and so on.

The fact that solar panels and systems square measure currently obtainable in varied sizes, shapes, and thicknesses conjointly make them much more versatile in terms of applications and wherever they will be used. New applications are perpetually being found and installations being created. There’s no reason to believe the longer term ones won’t be even a lot of exciting and liberating.

Is Time Travel Possible

Is Time Travel Possible? Physics Behind Time Travel

We all travel in time, don’t we? From the last year, we’ve moved up one year. Another way to say this is that we all are travelling forward at the same speed. But our topic at hand is, can we travel faster or slower? Or can we travel backwards or forward in time? It is indeed kind of mind-boggling to wrap our whole head around that concept. And there are countless imaginative theories. What if time-travel was possible? Would we be able to prevent something bad from happening? But if so, then what’s the guarantee that something more ominous might not happen? Let us dive deep into the depth of it all. Is all of this science fiction or is it truly possible?

Content

  1. Physics behind time travel
  2. Is time travel possible?
  3. Some paradoxes and facts about Time-Travel
  4. Wrapping up!

Physics behind time travel

To understand the concepts of time travel you need to understand a few theories and about a few hypothetical things.

The first name we get to our mind while talking about Time Travel is Albert Einstein and his Theory of Relativity. Understanding these theories completely is very difficult and there are very less people in the world who understand it completely. But this theory proves two special things with which we can travel in time. They are

1. If we travel with speeds closer to the speed of light, time will move slower for us (by the Special Theory of Relativity). But achieving such speed is very difficult and the reason again comes from Einstein. Einstein gave a mass velocity relation which tells that our inertial mass increases with velocity. The equation is

einsteins mass velocity relation

Einstein’s Mass Velocity Equation

Where,

  • is the magnitude of the velocity
  • is the speed of light
  • m0 is the rest mass of the body
  • m is the relativistic mass

2. Gravity distorts space and time and time moves slower in places with high gravitation (by the General Theory of Relativity). Know more about Gravity time dilation.

The Theory of General Relativity predicts the existence of something called Wormholes. A wormhole is a special solution to Einstein’s Field Equation. Wormholes are like passages or shortcuts between two points in space. Physicists say that we can travel in time through Wormholes but there are serious problems. We will discuss the problems in the next section.

One more hypothetical thing one needs to know is Exotic Matter. Exotic Matter is such a matter which have negative mass and repels the mass we see. At first, scientists believed that exotic matter cannot exist as it contradicts Einstein’s theories but some of the researchers have claimed that they have found a solution to Einsteins General theory of relativity which allows the existence of negative mass.

Is time travel possible?

The BBC’s long-running science-fiction series Doctor Who, celebrating its fiftieth day of remembrance on twenty-three Nov, centres on its name character’s adventures through time and house. However, he may extremely skip between totally different periods of history at will?

Travelling forwards in time is amazingly simple. Einstein’s special theory of relativity, developed in 1905, made it clear that if we can travel at speeds close to the speed of light, we can travel into the future. Thanks to Einstein

Time travel used to be thought of as just science fiction, but Einstein's general theory of relativity allows for the possibility that we could warp space-time so much that you could go off in a rocket and return before you set… Click To Tweet

If one were to go away from Earth inside a spacecraft moving at a considerable fraction of light speed, and is available back, solely a number of years may need to be passed on board however many years may have gone along on Earth. This leads to the “twins paradox“. What is twins paradox? Suppose one of a twin goes on the above-mentioned spacecraft and comes back, he would find himself much younger than his twin.

There’s just one drawback, once after you travel into future, coming back to the time where you started is difficult. There is a possibility of travelling back in time if traversable wormholes exist in reality. Wormholes are known to exist at microscopic levels and even if traversable wormholes exist they would collapse in seconds because of gravity. To keep Wormholes open we would need Exotic matter which is still hypothetical.

Assuming exotic matter exists and wormholes also do, even then we can’t go to any point in past. First of all, we need to have a machine to travel through a wormhole and with that machine we can travel back only to the time when the machine was created. Even if we create machines which have no effect with time and if could travel back to any point in time, we still have problems like the Grandfather paradox.

More restrictively still, theoretical work by Kip Thorne of Caltech employing a partial unification of general theory of relativity with natural philosophy recommended that any hole that enables time travel would collapse as before long because it fashioned.
Thorne did, however, resolve a noticeable issue that might arise because of my time travel (within the orbit of general relativity). The “grandfather paradox” involves going back in time and accidentally killing one’s grandfather before one’s father is planned – preventing one’s own birth.

Not only that, if time travel becomes possible anyone could go into the past and change the future randomly which is very dangerous.

Some paradoxes and facts about Time-Travel

Time Travel

Time Travel (Credi: Pixabay)

  1. Infinite Loop Paradox

A man travels back into the past and marries a woman. After that, he returns to the present. The woman whom he married gets pregnant and has a son. After a few years, that son becomes the time traveller who goes to the past and marries the woman.

So who is the son and who is the father?

  1. Stephen Hawking once believed that time travel is impossible

Stephen Hawking used to think that time travel is impossible. He claimed there would be some physical law which would prevent time travel and he even named it as “chronology protection conjecture”. But in the following years, unable to find any such physical law, he changed his statement and he stated as below

“Time travel may be possible, but it is not practical.”--Stephen Hawking Click To Tweet

3. Many of us are time travellers

Many researches have proved that time flows quickly on higher altitudes on earth. Scientists have compared time from two atomic clocks, one was on a mountain and one was at sea level. The clock on the mountain was faster by 90 Billionths of a second.

So if you want to add a few billionths of a second to your life, stay in basements.

4. End of Humans Paradox

If someone travels back in time and kills the first human, there should be no life and the human who went there should disappear. What? These paradoxes really sound terrific.

There are many other paradoxes and theories, people say that

  • All great scientists could probably be time travels and didn’t know how  to go back
  • All the amazing structures like the Pyramids, Kailashnath Temple etc might be built by the time travellers and the list goes on

Space and time are two sides of the same coin

Space And Time are simultaneous phenomena (like mass and energy), and together form the fabric of the universe known as space-time. A demonstration of four-dimensional space-time’s inseparability is the fact that, as astronomers often remind us, we cannot look into space without looking back into time. We see the Moon as it was 1.2 seconds ago and the Sun as it was 8 minutes ago.

Also, in accordance with Einstein’s general theory of relativity, a massive object in space stretches the fabric of both the space and time around it. For example, our Sun’s mass bends its surrounding space so that the Earth moves in a straight line but also circles within the Sun’s curvature in space. The Sun’s effect on time is to slow it down, so time runs slower for those objects close to the massive object. Interestingly, gravity is the result of mass stretching the fabric of the space-time around it. Gravity also has an infinite range such that no matter how far apart two masses are in space they will always experience some gravitational pull towards each other. Theoretical physicists have tried to explain this phenomenon in terms of gravitons, S-Theory, and M-Theory, but even today a successful quantum theory of gravity is yet to be found.

Wrapping up!

While time travel does not appear possible — at least, possible in the sense that the humans would survive it — with the physics that we use today, the field is constantly changing. Advances in quantum theories could perhaps provide some understanding of how to overcome time travel paradoxes.

One possibility, although it would not necessarily lead to time travel, is solving the mystery of how certain particles can communicate instantaneously with each other faster than the speed of light.

In the meantime, however, interested time travellers can at least experience it vicariously through movies, television and books.

Dark Energy

Dark Energy and the Fate of the Universe

Dark Matter & the Ultimate Fate of the Universe

So what is dark energy?

Well, the easy answer is that we do not recognize.

It looks to contradict several of our understandings regarding the manner the universe works. We all recognize that light-weight waves, conjointly known as radiation, carry energy. You feel that energy the instant you step outside on a hot summer day.

More is unknown than is thought. we all know what quantity dark energy there’s as a result of we all know however it affects the universe’s enlargement. apart from that, it’s an entire mystery. however, it’s a very important mystery. It seems that roughly sixty-eight of the universe is dark energy. matter makes up concerning twenty-seventh. the remainder – everything on Earth, everything ever determined with all of our instruments, all traditional matter – adds up to but five-hitter of the universe. come back to think about it, perhaps it should not be referred to as “normal” matter the least bit since it’s such a tiny low fraction of the universe.

One clarification for dark energy is that it’s a property of area. the physicist was the primary person to understand that a vacant area isn’t anything. the area has superb properties, several of that are simply starting to be understood. the primary property that Einstein discovered is that it’s potential for extra space to come back into existence.

Then one version of Einstein’s gravity theory, the version that contains a constant, makes a second prediction: “empty space” will possess its own energy. as a result of this energy may be a property of the area itself, it’d not be diluted as area expands. As extra space comes into existence, a lot of this energy-of-space would seem. As a result, this way of energy would cause the universe to expand quicker and quicker. sadly, nobody understands why the constant ought to even be there, abundant less why it’d have precisely the right worth to cause the discovered acceleration of the universe.

Another rationalization for the way house acquires energy comes from the scientific theory of matter. during this theory, “empty space” is really choked with temporary (“virtual”) particles that regularly type and so disappear. however once physicists tried to calculate what quantity energy this is able to offer empty house, the solution came out wrong – wrong by a great deal. the amount came out 10120 times too massive. that is a one with a hundred and twenty zeros once it. It’s laborious to urge a solution that unhealthy. that the mystery continues.

Another rationalization for dark energy is that it’s a brand new quite high-octane energy fluid or field, one thing that fills all of the areas however one thing whose result on the enlargement of the universe is that the opposite of that of matter and traditional energy. Some theorists have named this “quintessence,” when the fifth part of the Greek philosophers. But, if quintessence is that the answer, we have a tendency to still do not know what it’s like, what it interacts with, or why it exists. that the mystery continues.

The last chance is that Einstein’s theory of gravity isn’t correct. that will not solely have an effect on the enlargement of the universe, however, it might additionally have an effect on the method that ordinary matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies behaved. This truth would supply the way to make your mind up if the answer to the dark energy downside may be a new gravity theory or not: we have a tendency to might observe however galaxies close in clusters. however, if it will prove that a brand new theory of gravity is required, what quite a theory would it not be? however, might it properly describe the motion of the bodies within the system, as Einstein’s theory is thought to try toto, and still provide the U.S.A. with the various prediction for the universe that we have a tendency to need? There area unit candidate theories, however none area uncompelling. that the mystery continues.

The issue that’s required to make your mind up between dark energy potentialities – a property of area, a brand new dynamic fluid, or a brand new theory of gravity – is additional knowledge, higher knowledge.

Dark energy or dark matter?

Dark energy makes up most of the universe, however, substance additionally covers a sizeable chunk. Comprising nearly twenty-seven p.c of the universe, and eighty p.c of the matter, substance additionally plays a dominant role.

Like dark energy, substance continues to confound scientists. whereas dark energy could be a force that accounts for the increasing universe, substance explains, however, teams of objects operate along.

In the Fifties, scientists learning different galaxies expected gravity to cause the centres to rotate quicker than the outer edges, supported the distribution of the objects within them. To their surprise, each region revolved at a similar rate, indicating that the spiral galaxies contained considerably a lot of mass than they perceived to. Studies of gas within elliptical galaxies and of clusters of galaxies disclosed that this hidden matter was unfolded throughout the universe.
Scientists have a variety of potential candidates for substance, move to unbelievably dim objects to strange particles. however, regardless of the supply of each substance and dark energy, it’s clear that the universe is stricken by things that scientists cannotconventionally observe.

The fate of the Universe

The evolution of the universe is ruled by the number of matter and dark energy it contains, however, the densities of matter and dark energy—their concentrations inside given volume of space—are affected terribly otherwise by cosmic growth. we have a decent plan of what quantity matter the universe holds, and though we do not understand exactly what it’s, we have a tendency to do comprehend it is plagued by gravity. The key, then, to understanding the ultimate fate of the Universe lies in understanding the opposite half this dark equation: dark energy.

Currently, cosmologists perceive nearly nothing regarding dark energy albeit it seems to comprise regarding seventy % of the mass-energy content of the universe. they’re urgently seeking to uncover its elementary properties: its strength, its permanency, and any variation with direction. they need to learn the properties of matter before they will verify its influence on the increasing Universe.

This evolution in cosmic scale is schematically shown within the higher than the figure for many cosmologies. during a universe with a high density of matter, the Edwin Bubble growth that began with the large Bang continues to decelerate thanks to the gravitation attraction of the matter filling the universe, ending during a massive crunch. during a universe with a lower vital density of matter, the growth coasts. during a universe with dark energy additionally as matter, the initial slowing is reversed at late times by the increasing dominance of dark energy.

If the hypothetic dark energy continues to dominate the universe’s energy balance, then the present growth of house can still accelerate, exponentially. Structures that don’t seem to be already gravitationally certain can ultimately fly apart. the planet and therefore the Milky Way Galaxy would stay undisturbed whereas the remainder of the universe seems to run far from the USA.
The nature of dark energy is presently a matter of speculation. Some believe that dark energy could be “vacuum energy,” diagrammatic by the “cosmological constant” (Λ, the Greek capital letter lambda) normally relativity theory, a relentless uniform density of dark energy throughout all of the house that’s freelance of your time or the universe’s growth. This notion was introduced by Einstein and is according to our restricted observations so far. instead, dark energy would possibly vary with time. solely new sorts of observations will settle the difficulty.

Final Words

We do understand this: Since the area is everyplace, this dark energy force is everyplace, and its effects increase as area expands. In distinction, gravity’s force is stronger once things area unit close and weaker after they area unit so much apart. as a result of gravity is weakening with the enlargement of area, dark energy currently makes up over 2/3 of all the energy within the universe.
It sounds rather strange that we’ve got no firm plan regarding what makes up seventy-four of the universe. It’s as if we have a tendency to had explored all the land on the world Earth associate degreed ne’er all told our travels encountered an ocean. however currently that we’ve caught sight of the waves, we wish to grasp what this immense, strange, powerful entity extremely is.

The strangeness of dark energy is thrilling.

It shows scientists that there’s a spot in our information that must be crammed, beckoning the manner toward associate degree undiscovered realm of physics. we’ve got before the United States the proof that the cosmos could also be organized immensely otherwise than we have a tendency to imagine. Dark energy each signals that we have a tendency to still have a good deal to find out, and shows the United States that we have a tendency to stand poised for an additional nice leap in our understanding of the universe.

End of the Universe

End of the Universe

How will the universe end, and could anything survive?

The universe serves up spectacle after spectacle with so much ease and effortlessness that you cannot help but wonder how it has so many complexities hidden within its ulterior cloak of beauty. On the surface, the universe is magnificent and splendid. The immortal souls that are credited for creating it are not yet finished with it. Perhaps, they get lost in its admiration and in its beauty and lose track of the job at hand. The fact that the universe can be so alluring despite its intricacies is in itself worth cherishing. But, like all good things, the universe will come to an end.

The end of the universe is not near, however, it is inevitable. There might not be any need to set alarm bells ringing anytime in the near future, but, the universe does have an expiration date.There have been several theories on how the universe could end. If the universe has been a cause for fascination and you want to learn more about how it could potentially all end, then, this article is just for you. Read on.

Let’s start from the beginning, the Origin of the Universe

To predict an ending, you would have to understand the beginning. Like all spectacular things, the universe too had a spectacular origin. This beginning was the Big Bang. The Big Bang theory explains the evolution that the universe had to undergo. This theory states that the universe was initially extremely hot and dense.As time passed, the universe began to cool and expand.

big-bang

Image Source: Coldcreation

According to the Standard model, the four fundamental forces in the universe are gravity, strong and weak attractive forces and electromagnetic radiation. Of the four, gravity is considered to be the weakest. It is hypothesized that during the beginning of the universe that gravity was as strong as the other fundamental forces. All the matter in the universe was condensed into such small spaces that the gravity had to be extremely high. The universe did not stay in this condensed state for too long and began to expand. The expansion is considered to be perpetual and is taking place even while you are reading this.

What is really scary is the fact that the rate of this expansion keeps increasing every second. This expansion is credited to dark energy, but, nobody really knows for sure what it is. Here are the theories that try to explain how the universe could end.

The Big Rip

For as long as we have known, the universe has been expanding. During this process of expansion, lots and lots of space was created. Galaxies began to move apart since the space between them increased. Within the galaxy, the space also expanded. However, the gravity acted as the glue that kept it all together. The gravity provides the force that keeps the galaxies together. It is strong enough to negate the expansion. In the Big Rip scenario, the rate of expansion increases so drastically that it reaches a point where gravity cannot counter or negate the effect of the expansion of space. The acceleration of space expansion would be tremendously high.This causes the universe to, well, rip. This is what is referred to as the Big Rip.

This effect would start with the larger bodies and slowly propagate to the smaller bodies. It would first start with the galaxies. These galaxies would get ripped apart. Then, black holes, stars, and planets would die. Since the gravity is not strong enough, they would simply just dissolve into their constituents. Then these smaller components would disintegrate. Everything we know would get ripped apart.

Space would then start expanding so fast that it would be faster than even light! Atoms and subatomic particles would also tear apart. Since space is moving so fast, there would be no interaction between particles. So, even the small particles that remain after this massive expansion cannot interact with anything in the universe to form bigger particles. This universe would be so strange that when you compare it with today’s universe, it would seem ridiculous.The possibility is unfathomable, but, not impossible.

The Big Freeze

Simply put, the difference between the Big Freeze and the Big Rip is that in the Big Freeze scenario, matter does not disintegrate, it gets converted into radiation in a process that could take forever. To understand this, you will need to understand entropy. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of an isolated system can never decrease, therefore, every body moves to a state which increases its entropy. This means that every body cools down and it disintegrates until it reaches some form of equilibrium. This is true for the universe as well. The matter in the universe slowly disintegrates and spreads out. Every body, whether big or small, will have its matter disintegrating into radiation.

The gas clouds required to generate stars would disintegrate. The universe will become an extremely dark place as a result. The suns would also disintegrate. Black holes would be the only entities left in the universe. These black holes, however, will also lose energy in the form of Hawking radiation and also disintegrate. Slowly but almost surely, only a few light particles would remain. But, even these will eventually decay. The universe would be reduced to nothing. A place of nothingness. Entropy would have reached its maximum, and the highest form of equilibrium would have been reached. The universe would have finally ended.

However, all hope is not lost. The phenomenon of quantum tunneling could cause a change in the entropy leading to another Big Bang. In this case, the universe would just restart as if nothing really happened.

The Big Crunch and The Big Bounce

Gravity, which is the weakest of all fundamental forces could one day become the most powerful. This is possible if the amount of dark energy reduces substantially over time. This would mean that the universe would simply stop expanding. This would mean that the rate of expansion would slow down at some point and keep slowing down until the process of expansion ceases. Then, it slows down even more and reverses. The universe, instead of growing, would begin to contract and become smaller and smaller. Galaxies will merge, and the universe will get significantly hotter. The temperatures would reach such high levels that bodies that cannot bear such temperatures would disintegrate. Everything will get denser.

Big Crunch by Wikipedia

Big Crunch Illustration. Image Source : Wikipedia

Black holes that consume everything close to them, would begin consuming bodies. As things get closer and closer, more objects would get closer to black holes. These black holes would consume everything including other black holes. The amount of gravity will be immense. All black holes will eventually form a single supermassive blackhole at the center of the universe. At the last moment of the Big Crunch, the entire universe would be consumed by the gigantic black hole and finally, it would consume itself. The Big Bounce theory states that this entire process has been taking place for a long while. According to the Big Crunch, the universe is stuck in a loop of expansion and contraction leading to many deaths and rebirths of the universe.

The timeline for the end of the universe

Our planet will cease to exist in about 1 billion years from now. The Sun would burn 10% brighter and the heat from the sun would dry up all the water on earth. All life will be extinguished. In about 5 to 8 billion years, the sun would undergo expansion to reach a size that is so big that it would devour most planets. In about 1 trillion years from now, all galaxies would merge into one. In 100 trillion years, we would enter the degenerate era. This era is marked by the death of all stars in the galaxies, which, results in black holes. In 10 to 100 quintillion years, everything would be consumed by black holes. In a decillion years time, we might have the black hole era, where the universe is dominated by black holes. Eventually, these black holes will lose energy in the form of Hawking radiation and die too. In about a googol year, the universe would cease to exist.

Erich Fromm, a renowned psychologist, and sociologist once said, “The quest for certainty blocks the search for meaning. Uncertainty is the very condition to impel man to unfold his powers”. There is so much uncertainty around. Everything in the universe is uncertain, so much so that even the universe itself is uncertain! The universe always has a clever way to teach important lessons. Uncertainty should compel humanity to make the most of the time we have.

The universe can die but it can start all over again. The reality that we observe today may not be considered reality at all in the distant future. Whether the universe ends or not, one thing is certain, the universe should be cherished and celebrated while we can all still bask in its splendor.

Big Bang and the Age of the Universe

Big Bang and the Age of the Universe

Astronomers calculated that the Big Bang occurred between twelve and fourteen billion years ago. To place this in perspective, the solar system is assumed to be 4.5 billion years old and humans have existed for a few million years.

Astronomers estimate the age of the universe in 2 ways:

  1. By trying to find the oldest stars
  2. By finding out the speed of expansion of the universe and extrapolating back to the Big Bang

Is it older than the stars?

Astronomers could place a lower limit to the age of the universe by studying about Globular clusters. These circular clusters are a dense assortment of roughly 1,000,000 stars. Stellar densities close to the middle of these clusters are huge. If we lived close to the middle of one, there would be several hundred thousand stars closer to us than the Proxima Centauri, the nearest star after the Sun.

The life cycle of a star is solely depended upon its mass. High Mass stars are a lot brighter than Low Mass stars; therefore they quickly burn through their supply of hydrogen fuel. A star just like the Sun has enough fuel in its core to burn at its current brightness for roughly nine billion years. A star that is twice as massive as the Sun will burn through its fuel supply in only 800 million years. A 10 solar mass star, a star that is 10 times more massive than the Sun, burns nearly a thousand times brighter and has only a 20 million year fuel supply. Conversely, a star that is half as massive as the Sun burns slowly enough for its fuel to last more than 20 billion years.

All the stars in a globular cluster are formed roughly at the same time; therefore they function like cosmic clocks. If a cluster is over twenty million years old, then all of its hydrogen-burning stars will be less massive than 10 solar masses. This suggests that no hydrogen-burning star is going to be over a thousand times brighter than the Sun. If a cluster is over two billion years old, then there’ll be no hydrogen-burning star more massive than 2 solar masses.

The oldest cluster contains only those stars which are less massive than 0.7 solar masses. Low Mass stars are a lot less dim than the Sun. This observation suggests that the oldest clusters are between 11 and 14 billion years old. The uncertainty in this estimate is because of the problem in finding the precise distance to cluster (hence, uncertainty within the brightness (and mass) of the stars in the cluster). Another source of uncertainty during this estimate lies in our ignorance of finer details of stellar evolution.

Astronomers also study some old stars and try to detect remaining dust from ancient supernova to have some more limits to the age of the universe.

However, there are some stars found which contradicts the currently believed age of 13.8 billion years. Read about one such star called HD 140283 here

Hubble constant

An alternative approach to estimate the age of the universe is to calculate the “Hubble constant”. The Hubble constant is a measure of the expansion rate of the universe. Cosmologists use this activity to extrapolate back to the Big Bang. This extrapolation depends on the history of the expansion rate that depends on the present density of the universe and on the composition of the universe.

If the universe is flat and composed largely of matter, then the age of the universe is

2/(3 Ho)

where Ho denotes the Hubble’s constant.

If the universe has a very low density of matter, then its extrapolated age is larger:

1/Ho

If the universe contains a form of matter similar to the cosmological constant, then the inferred age can be even larger.

Cosmic distance ladder

Many astronomers are operating exhaustingly to calculate the Hubble’s constant employing a type of completely different techniques. Till recently, the simplest estimates ranged from 65 km/sec/Megaparsec to 80 km/sec/Megaparsec. In additional acquainted units, astronomers believe that 1/Ho is between 12 and 14 billion years.

The latest news on Hubble constant:

Researchers detect abnormal rates in the expansion of universe

In the latest researches, the results have been shown that the universe is enlarging much quicker than it should be based on the conditions after Big Bang. The constantly increasing rate of the universe is known as Hubble Constant and it has been very hard to pin down the rate.

AN AGE CRISIS?

On comparing the two age determinations, there is a potential crisis. If the universe is flat and dominated by ordinary or dark matter, the age of the universe as estimated from the Hubble constant would be around 9 billion years. This would lead to a contradiction as the age of the universe would be shorter than the age of oldest stars. This contradiction implies that either

  1. Our measurement of the Hubble constant itself is incorrect
  2. The Big Bang theory has to be replaced
  3. That we need a form of matter like a cosmological constant that implies an older age for a given observed expansion rate.

Some astronomers believe that this crisis will pass as soon as measurements improve. If the astronomers who have measured the smaller values of the Hubble constant are correct, and if the smaller estimates of globular cluster ages are also correct, then all is well for the Big Bang theory, even without a cosmological constant.

WMAP satellite

Measurements by the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) satellite facilitated and confirmed the age of the universe. By measuring the thermal radiation left over from the Big Bang(known as Cosmic Microwave Background), missions such as WMAP are able to determine the density, composition and expansion rate of the universe. As of 2013, WMAP determined these parameters with an accuracy of higher than 1.5%. In turn, knowing the composition with this precision, we could estimate the age of the universe to about 0.4%: 13.77 ± 0.059 billion years!

WMAP satellite artist depiction from NASA

WMAP satellite artist depiction. Image Source: NASA

How does WMAP data enable us to determine the age of the universe is 13.77 billion years, with an uncertainty of only 0.4%? The key to this is that by knowing the composition of matter and energy density in the universe, we will use Einstein’s theory of relativity to calculate how fast the universe has been expanding in the past. With this information, we will flip the clock back and estimate when the universe had “zero” size, in line with Einstein.

The time between then and now could be the age of the universe. There’s one caveat to keep in mind that affects the understanding of the age determination: we have a tendency to assume that the universe is flat, that is well supported by WMAP and alternative knowledge. If we relax this assumption, the uncertainty will increase. Inflation naturally predicts a really nearly flat universe.

The expansion age measured by WMAP is larger than the oldest globular clusters, so, Big Bang theory has passed a crucial test using data independent of the type collected by WMAP. If the expansion age measured by WMAP had been smaller than the oldest globular clusters, then there would be something wrong in either the Big Bang theory or the theory of stellar evolution. Either way, astronomers would have required rethinking several of their cherished concepts. However, our current estimate of age fits well with what we all know from other forms of measurements.

Final Words

So, in conclusion, we’ve 2 methods — one from our cosmic history and one by measuring native stars — that show us our Universe’s age is between thirteen and fourteen billion years. Today it is widely accepted that our universe in 13.772 billion years old with a possible error of 59 million years. However, there are a lot of observations and experiments going on to get more precise age of our universe

Bermuda Triangle

Bermuda Triangle: Mystery and Scientific Explanations

The Enduring Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil’s Triangle has been the topic of controversies and mysteries and several tales to this day. Even its location is a topic of great mystery and confusion to this day. It is rumoured to be located in the Atlantic Ocean bordered by a line from Florida to the Bermuda islands, to Puerto Rico and then back to Florida.

The term “Bermuda Triangle” was initially employed in a piece written by Vincent H.Gaddis for Argosy magazine in 1964.

In the article, Gaddis claimed that during this strange ocean variety of ships and planes had disappeared while not clarification.

Gaddis wasn’t the primary one to return to the present conclusion, either.

As early as 1952, George X. Sands, during a report in Fate magazine, noted what sounded like a bizarrely sizable amount of strange accidents in this region.

Why do ships and planes seem to disappear in the region? Some authors theorize it may be due to a strange magnetic anomaly that affects compass calculations (in fact they claim Columbus noted this when he sailed through the area in 1492).

Scientific Explanations

“Rogue waves are one clarification and that they do occur within Bermuda’s region however by no suggests that unambiguously here — they’re much more common off the Cape of fine Hope,” explained Dr Boxall, A man of science and principal teacher at the U.K.’s University of Southampton. “They were things of story and sailors’ tales, however since the introduction of satellite systems capable of activity waves there are variations as huge as thirty m (100 feet) measured and verified.”

The rapscallion waves return and go terribly at random and quickly however are continually a part of a storm, in line with Boxall. “The heroic tale moving picture of a flat calm ocean with a 100ft wave touch the liner out of the blue is a story,” he told Fox News via email. The rapscallion waves, he added, wouldn’t deter him from taking a cruise.

The analysis was bestowed as a part of “The Bermuda Triangle Enigma,” a Channel five documentary series.

Boxall conjointly cited busy maritime traffic within the Bermuda Triangle because the key thinks about its name.
“The space lined by constellation accounts for nearly a 3rd of all in private owned vessels within the U.S.,” he said. “The 2016 armed service annual report shows that during this space eighty two % of all incidents involving marine traffic of any kind were caused by folks with no expertise or coaching. The numbers represent themselves on why such a large amount of incidents occur here.”

Conspiracy theories of Bermuda Triangle

  1. Gas Trapped

A large amount of methane gas is thought to exist below the bottom at bay within the sediments in a type of paraffin hydrates. If such gas finds its solution and starts rising through the water, it will considerably scale back the density of water therein space. And ships passing over that space will sink in no time. Such gas, when unleashed, can even produce explosions and saturate the atmosphere with methane gas inflicting planes to crash.

  1. Strange clouds

Scientists have noticed the formation of strange hexangular formed clouds with straight edges on the Atlantic Ocean. This is often an odd and rare phenomenon. Meteorologists make sure from alternative such formations of cloud at sea and evidence shown by satellite pictures that they’re like air bombs. The air bombs will blast and send winds to the ocean at a lower place at speeds of up to one hundred seventy miles per hour which might be dangerous for craft or ships passing through it.

Additionally, such air bomb explosion will produce mammoth waves as high as 45-foot and ocean surface wind of regarding a hundred miles per hour that can also be very dangerous.

  1. Underwater reefs

The island, additionally called the ‘Isle of the devils’, forms one corner of a constellation and is found regarding 650 miles off the geographic region of America. It’s an incontrovertible fact that the island is utterly ringed by varied shipwrecks that lie at the bottom near its shores. If truth be told there are over three hundred ships that destroyed inside two hundred sq. miles of water space encompassing island.

So why the bottom here has become a ships’ graveyard? the solution is thought… there are varied underneath water reefs encompassing island that rise from the lowest of the ocean and stay perilously hidden under the water surface. Not too way back the captains of the ships had to believe entirely on compass and guidance charts (and sometimes on the position of the stars) to navigate through the ocean to achieve their destinations. And unwittingly once the ships ignored such hidden reefs, usually, the hulls of the ships were torn apart by treacherous reefs, sinking them in no time.

With the advancement of technology and the use of contemporary GPS systems, these reefs will currently be noticed and avoided. Several of such wrecks these days are renowned sites for skin diving.

  1. Strange whirlpools

A strange development has been noticed in the Bahama Islands that is found at the western corner of the area and concerning fifty miles off the coast of FL. There are whirlpools here with terribly sturdy periodic event currents flowing in and out of them. Any ships passing over them will simply get sucked in and into the endless depths here.

In fact, such phenomena have been legendary to the natives here since ages associate degree associate degree ancient belief says there’s an underwater monster that breathes in and out. Throughout inhalation, it will suck in folks simply or perhaps ships. But the important facts have currently been legendary.

There are literally several Blue Holes in Bahama Islands water space… these are giant underwater caves or cavities that are shaped through earth science transformations. These bottle formed caves that have their openings close to the water surface will have depths of 100s of feet. The most important such Blue Hole in Bahama Islands (and second deepest within the world) is Dean’s Blue Hole. it’s a depth of 663ft.

Divers have discovered that deep below within the Blue Holes, there are several lateral tunnels that have originated from the walls of the blue hole (i.e. from walls of the most underwater cave) and that they last miles in numerous directions. Water flows in and out of those lateral tunnels throughout the tide amendment which truly causes the periodic event currents on the ocean surface and also the whirlpools. And these whirlpools may be extraordinarily dangerous for ships passing over them or perhaps close to their edge.

  1. Compass anomalies

Do you understand that magnetic and absolute North isn’t identical? Which implies that the north wherever a compass points and therefore the absolute geographic north that is that the North Pole is completely different. Therefore ships got to create an adjustment for this distinction to stay in the correct direction. However, in the area, there’s a slim strip wherever each these North’s become identical. Some claim that such Compass Variation may are the cause for fatal accidents as ships didn’t verify the right direction.

  1. Strange weather

At times there are violent storms within the Atlantic space. These short however intense storms will build up quickly and depart thus quick that even a satellite cannot discover them properly. However, these storms are robust enough to destroy ships or planes utterly. There are waterspouts seen during this space. A waterspout is sort of a tornado baffled that sucks water from the ocean thousands of feet into the sky.

Hurricanes are extraordinarily powerful whirling storms that generally seem within the Atlantic close to the equator. they typically originate from south Japanese Atlantic and have the Atlantic space towards the south Japanese coast of the U.S.A. June to Gregorian calendar month is that the time once a chance of such cyclone occurring is that the most.

Such hurricanes have traditionally been the cause for loss of the many lives and in-depth harm. The sinking of Francisco Delaware Bobadilla’s Spanish fleet in 1502 was the primary recorded instance of such damaging cyclone. Hurricanes have within the past caused a variety of fatal damages to the sailing vessels passing through the realm.

  1. What lies at the bottom?

The seafloor in country space is additionally found to be quite strange. The technology of measuring device mapping (using sound waves) has been utilized by the scientists to grasp the depth of the seafloor at varied places within the triangle. Some uncommon formations are found. At varied places from a mild slope, the seafloor takes an unforeseen deep drop. In fact, a number of the deepest trenches within the world are found during this space. Ships or planes that sink into these deep trenches can in all probability ne’er be found as they’re just about inaccessible.

One such space is at the Bahamas that is found at the western corner of the area. It’s been found that at some specific water areas here, the seafloor suddenly dips to a colossal depth of fifteen thousand ft.

Scientists conjointly speculate that there are often giant deep ocean craters on the ocean floor of the country. This may be caused by a great number of oil leaks or exploding of gas that was cornered at totally different layers below the ocean floor. Such large craters (about a mile wide and 150ft deep) have already been discovered at Barent Ocean off the coast of Noreg in March 2016. Similar such deep ocean craters are seemingly to exist in country furthermore as a result of the ocean floor within the space is thought to contain a great amount of gas. If a ship is destroyed because of gas blow out or the other reason and drops into the crater, it will simply disappear while not effort any trace.

Wrapping it UP!!!

As a kid, many have revealed within the mysteries of the Atlantic, gushing over literature that told of ghost ships, of planes disappearing forever, of instruments going haywire. Even adults, with pictures from their youth clear in their head, many have spent a lot of time at intervals the boundaries of the alarming Triangle, a swath of the ocean between Bermuda. Let’s hope one day we can solve with actual evidence of the great mystery that is Bermuda Triangle.