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Researchers develop new chip to bridge the gap between quantum and classical computing

The Gap between quantum and classical computing is bridged by this new chip

Quantum computers existing today are limited versions of the futuristic quantum computers that we hope to achieve in the future. However, scientists have created the hardware for the “probabilistic computer” – a device to bridge the gap between the standard PCs of today and the genuine quantum computers. The study appears in the Nature journal. 

This probabilistic computer can solve quantum problems using a special trick. It uses a p-bit which is described by the research team as “poor man’s qubit”. In classical computing, a bit can either take the value 1 or 0, while qubits can take both of these values at the same time as per the laws of quantum computing. Meanwhile, the p-bit can take only 1 or 0 at a time, but the switch between two states occurs very quickly. Using the fluctuations properly, researchers can tackle the problems that are considered quantum computing problems without using a real quantum computer. 

In addition to this, the p-bit can operate at room temperature whereas the qubits need super-cold conditions for their operation. P-bits can be easily adapted to the existing computers. Supriyo Datta, an electrical engineer at Purdue University, in Indiana, said that there are a group of problems solved with the help of qubits that can also be solved by the p-bits. Hence getting the name “poor man’s qubit”. 

The result of the research has been a modified magnetoresistive random access memory(MRAM) device for storing information in the computers of the present day. Magnetic orientations are used to represent 0s or 1s using states of resistance. Eight custom-made MRAM p-bit units were put with a controller chip to create a probabilistic computer – where units are used to take a specific value. 

Scientists were able to solve the integer factorization problems, which are usually considered quantum problems. It can also be solved by classical computers however with lesser efficiency. The probabilistic computer along with p-bits represents a middle ground between two ends. Scientists feel that the fully developed p-bit computers would solve integer factorization problems with lesser energy and time than the computers of the present day. 

Ahmed Zeeshan Pervaiz, Purdue University said that the circuit occupies the same area as that of a transistor but performs the function which would take several thousand transistors to perform. The calculation speed could also be increased by parallel operation of a huge number of p-bits. 

For the practical use of these machines, there is a need for more refining which would not take much time. After that, these can handle certain problems until the final leap in quantum computing occurs. Connecting qubits for practical use is a tough challenge until then p-bits can be used for machine learning and optimization problems. 

Journal Reference: Nature

quantum entanglement

For the first time researchers develop quantum radar based on entangled photons

Quantum revolution has made it possible to sense the world in a different way. The aim is to use the unique properties of quantum mechanics to take measurements or produce images which are otherwise considered impossible. 

Majority of the work is done with the help of photons. However most of the work in quantum revolution involving quantum computing, cryptography has been done with the help of visible or near-visible light. 

However, Shabir Barzanjeh and his team from the Institute of Science and Technology, Austria used entangled microwaves for creating the first quantum radar in the world. It can detect far-away objects with the help of few photons thus demonstrating the stealth radars which can function without emitting detectable electromagnetic radiation. The paper can be found here

A pair of entangled microwave photons are created with the help of a superconducting device known as Josephson parametric converter. The first photon also defined as the signal photon is beamed toward a specific object and then the reflection is captured. In the meantime, the second photon which is also called the idler photon is stored. On the arrival of the reflection, a signature is created by interfering with the idler photon which tells the distance traversed by the signal photon. A normal radar works in the similar manner, however, fails when the power levels involve lesser numbers of microwave photons. Reason being hot objects emit their own microwaves. 

In-room temperature, at any instant, 1000 microwave photons are present which overwhelm the reflecting echo. So powerful transmitters are used by radar systems. This is solved in the entangled photon system. The signal and idler photons help in filtering out the effects of other photons. So it is simple to detect the signal photon upon reflection. Reflection hurts quantum entanglement since it is a fragile property, but the correlation between idler and signal photons help in distinguishing themselves from the noise. 

Researchers said that a room temperature object at a distance of 1 meter was detected with the help of entangled fields using the Josephson parametric converter at millikelvin temperatures. This setup outperforms the normal radar system as it operates with lesser number of photons. But this is only for short distances. 

This experiment shows the application of microwave-based entanglement and quantum radar. A potential demonstration of quantum illumination is also shown. This technique can be used in biomedical applications since it is a non-invasive scanning technique such as human tissue imaging. For a closed environment, there is the obvious application as a stealthy radar that is difficult for adversaries to detect over background noise 

Journal Reference: arxiv

quantum teleportation qubit

Researchers successfully achieve complex quantum teleportation for the first time

For the first time, researchers from Austria and China have managed to teleport three dimensional quantum states. This teleportation of higher dimensional states might play an important role in quantum computers in the coming days.

Scientists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated what was previously thought of as only a theoretical possibility. With the scientists from the University of Science and Technology of China, they were able to teleport complex high-dimensional quantum states. This is reported in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Scientists teleported the quantum state of a qutrit to another distant one. Earlier scientists were able to transport qubits, which have only two-level states. But scientists have now successfully teleported a qutrit which was created from the photon and has three-level states.

Since the 1990s, it was known that multidimensional quantum teleportation can be achieved. Manuel Erhard, Vienna Institute for Quantum Optics said that the first step was to design a technique to implement high-dimensional teleportation along with the technology. To teleport a quantum state, it is encoded in the possible paths which can be taken by the photon. Paths can be correlated to three optical fibers. Interestingly, in quantum physics, one photon might be present in all the fibres at once.

Bell measurement is at the core of quantum teleportation. A multiport beam splitter is used that directs photons with the help of many inputs and outputs thereby connecting the optical fibers. Also, auxiliary photons were used which were sent to the multiple beam splitter for interfering with other photons.

By selecting specific interference patterns, quantum information can be sent to a photon situated far away from input photon, without them interacting. This concept can be extended to as many dimensions as possible.

By achieving this, the research team has demonstrated that a quantum internet can be created in the future by transmitting large amounts of information. Anton Zeilinger, a scientist at Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna said that the result will help in the connection of quantum computers having information capacities greater than qubits.

Chinese researchers also find immense potential in the field of multidimensional quantum teleportation. Jian-Wei Pan, University of Science and Technology of China said that their research will be the foundation for a quantum network system that can be built in the future. Pan presented his points at the University of Vienna and the Academy recently.

Quantum physicists in the future will also try to demonstrate the teleportation of the entire quantum state of one photon or atom.

Research Paper: Quantum Teleportation in High Dimensions

qubit states

Researchers discover superconductor that could enhance quantum computer development

Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have discovered a superconductor that could very probably be useful for developing quantum computers by overcoming one of the main barriers in the development of effective quantum logic circuit. The paper has been published in Science journal.

Recently unearthed properties in the compound uranium ditelluride or UTe2 show that it could be highly resilient to one of the nemeses of quantum computer development – the problem with making memory storage switches of a quantum computer known as qubits, to function long enough to complete a calculation before losing the sensitive physical relationship that allows them to function as a group. This is known as quantum coherence which is difficult to sustain because of disturbances from the surrounding world.

It is one of the rare superconductor materials because of its peculiar and strong resistance to the magnetic field and provides benefits for qubit design, mainly their resistance to the fallacies that can easily drag into the quantum calculation. The research team’s Nick Butch said that UTe2’s unique properties could make it alluring to the emerging quantum computer sector.

Butch, a physicist at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) said that uranium ditelluride which is the silicon of the quantum information era could be used to build the qubits of an efficient quantum computer.

Results of research team which includes scientists from Ames Laboratory and the University of Maryland explain UTe2’s exceptional characteristics, interesting from viewpoint of both technical application and fundamental science.

Electrons that conduct electricity travel as separate particles in copper wire or some other ordinary conductor but in Superconductors, they form cooper pairs and the electromagnetic interactions that produce these pairings are responsible for the material’s superconductivity. BCS theory which explains this type of superconductivity is named after the three scientists who revealed the pairings and also won the Nobel prize for that.

The property of electrons that is especially important to the cooper pairing is the quantum “spin” that makes electrons act as if they have a little bar magnet running through them. In the majority of superconductors, the paired electrons have their quantum spins oriented one upward and other downwards and the opposed pairing is called a spin-singlet.

The Cooper pairs in UTe2 can have their spins oriented in one of three combinations making their spin triplets oriented in parallel rather than opposition making it nonconformists like the very few known superconductors. Most of the spin-triplet SCs are assumed to be “topological” with an extremely useful quality in which the superconductivity occurs on the material’s surface and persist even in the presence of outer shocks.

These parallel spin pairs could help the computer keep operative and can’t automatically collapse because of quantum variations. Superconductor has been perceived to have advantages as the basis for quantum computer elements, and recent economical advances in quantum computer development have engaged circuits made from superconductors, unlike the quantum computer that need a way to correct the errors that drag in from their surroundings because of the topological SC’s properties.

Butch said that Topological superconductors are a substitute path to quantum computing because of long lifespan and it gives error-free qubits and also protects it from the environment.

Researchers stumbled upon UTe2 while exploring uranium-based magnets whose electronic properties can be adjusted as desired by changing their chemistry, pressure or magnetic field and is a useful feature for customizable materials (the material consists of slightly radioactive “depleted uranium”).

UTe2 was first developed back in the 1970s but recently while making some UTe2 while they were synthesizing related materials, they experimented it at lower temperatures to see if any event might have been ignored and they noticed that they had something very special.

The NIST team at both the NCNR and the University of Maryland started studying UTe2 with specialized tools and noticed that it became superconducting at low temperatures (below -271.5 oCelsius, or 1.6 Kelvin) with properties resembling rare ferromagnetic superconductors which acts like low-temperature permanent magnets. Yet, strangely UTe2 is itself not ferromagnetic which makes it fundamentally new.

UTe2 can resist fields as high as 35 Tesla which is 3,500 times strong as a normal refrigerator magnet, and much more than the lowest temperature topological SCs can resist.

This extraordinary resistance to strong magnetic fields means it is a spin-triplet SC and likely a topological SC as well and will help researchers to study the nature of UTe2 and superconductivity itself. The main purpose of this research and exploring SC’s is to study superconductivity and to know where to look for undiscovered SC materials which is difficult right now and also to understand what stabilizes these parallel-spin SCs.

Journal Reference: Science journal

facet slac

New generation of X-Ray lasers and particle colliders to be produced by Trojan Horse technique

Researchers have developed “super microscopes” to study nature on its primary level which can solve atomic and sub-atomic mysteries. They can investigate the smallest dimensions of matter with electron rays although it won’t work with visible light. It can be done either by directly using them in particle colliders or converting their energy to bright X-rays in X-ray lasers. Particle accelerators first produce electrons at source, then excite them through accelerator cavities.

Scientists from the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory together with an international group of researchers have shown potentially much brighter plasma-based electron source suitable for use in powerful accelerators. Trojan horse technique is the process of releasing a beam of electrons from neutral atoms inside the plasma.

Bernhard Hidding from the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland, the principal investigator of the study said that the Trojan horse method is experimentally proven and can be used for future electron sources. The research has been published in Nature Physics.

Currently, electrons are produced by shining laser light onto a metallic photocathode which pulls electrons out of the metal. Then the electrons are accelerated inside metal cavities where more energy is withdrawn from radiofrequency field resulting in a high-power electron beam. The ray results in the generation of very bright X-ray light in X-ray lasers such as Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) of SLAC.

Accelerators for high-energy beams become very large and costlier because the metal cavities can sustain only a specific energy gain over a certain distance before it collapses. Researchers at SLAC tried to make compact accelerators as they experimented substituting metal cavities with plasma which decreases the length of accelerators by 100 to 1000 times along with higher acceleration gradients.

Co-author Mark Hogan from SLAC mentioned that plasma acceleration can be very powerful but enhanced beams suitable for future use have not been produced yet which makes improving beam quality a top priority along with developing new forms of electron sources. The Trojan horse method could make electron beams 100 to 10,000 times brighter than the most powerful beams currently according to past estimation by researchers.

James Rosenzweig, co-author and principal investigator for Trojan horse project at the University of California, Los Angeles said that it is possible to build X-ray lasers with same power over few meters rather than a kilometer by uniting high acceleration and beam creation in plasma. The scientists conducted their experiment at Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) facility that produces high energetic electron pulses for research on future accelerator technologies, including plasma acceleration.

The researchers beamed laser light having enough energy to remove electrons off hydrogen into a mixture of hydrogen and helium gas turning neutral hydrogen into plasma which was not possible with helium where electrons stayed inside plasma being neutral. Researchers produced a plasma wake by sending one of FACET’s electron beam through the plasma similar to a motorboat generates a stir when gliding through the water, where the trailing electrons gain a high amount of energy. A lot of research needs to be done for making compact X-Ray lasers a reality with a need to improve their quality and quantity.

Vitaly Yakimenko, director of SLAC’s FACET Division said that these advancements can be done after FACET upgradation and FACET-II completion as it will be the only place in the world to generate beams with enormous intensity and energy because the experiment depends on the ability to use a powerful electron beam to produce the plasma stir.

Researchers destroyed the helium when the trailing electrons passed by, with a focused laser flash. Electrons after being pulled out of the helium atoms by a light pulse having enough energy were then accelerated in the stir. UCLA’s Aihua Deng, one of the lead authors said that it is important as well as challenging for the synchronization between the electron beam and laser flash running through the plasma with the speed of light to last merely a few millionths of a billionth second.

The generated electron will trouble the formation of plasma stir if the flash comes too early and plasma would have moved on and the electrons would not get accelerated if it comes too late. Oliver Karger, the other lead author said that the electrons knocked from helium gets quickly accelerated in the forward direction keeping the beam tightly packaged making this method transformative.

Research Paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41567-019-0610-9

qubit

Researchers for the first time report quantum teleportation in qutrit

Scientists have successfully completed teleportation of a qutrit which is a piece of quantum information based on three states and this has opened a whole new host of opportunities and possibilities for quantum computing and communication sector.

Until now, Qubits were used for quantum transportation for long distances, however, a new proof of concept study has shown that future quantum networks will be able to carry much more data with lesser interference that was being thought. Bits in classical computing can be in two states, either 1 or 0. However, in quantum computing, there is qubit which can be both 0 or 1 at the same time called superposition. Qutrit has a similar relation to a trit, adding superposition to the classical examples, that are represented as 0,1 or 2. A qutrit can be all of these at one single time, which makes a huge leap in terms of computer processing power or the amount of information that can be sent at once. It adds another level of complexity for quantum computing researchers.

Quantum teleportation is simply getting the quantum information from one place to the other through a process called quantum entanglement. It is a case when two quantum particles are interlinked and one reveals the properties of the other, no matter how far apart they might be present. The quantum information can be beamed via photons of light that might be used in the future to create an unhackable internet network which will be protected by fundamental laws of physics.

By splitting the path of a photon into 3 parts close to each other in a careful manner with lasers, beam splitters and barium crystals, researchers were able to create qutrit and generate entanglement.

The system produced a fidelity of 0.75 over a measurement of 12 states which is an accurate result. The setup remained slow and inefficient but has shown that quantum teleportation is possible. Daniel Garisto reports in Scientific American, that another group of scientists have recorded teleportation across 10 states but their work has not yet been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal. They would also upgrade their systems in the future maybe even to the heights of ququarts.

Researchers mentioned that their work provides a complete toolbox for teleporting a particle in an intact manner by combining previous methods of teleportation of two-particle systems and multiple degrees of freedom. The scientists expect their results will pave way for quantum technology applications in higher dimensions since teleportation plays a central role in quantum networks and repeaters.

Journal Reference: arxiv

Qubit Mechanical Resonator

Researchers successful in developing quantum light sources for use in optical circuits

A team of researchers led by Alexander Holleitner, Jonathan Finley, physicists at Technical University of Munich (TUM) has succeeded in placing light sources in atomically thin material layers having an accuracy of few nanometres. It allows a series of applications in quantum technology ranging from quantum sensors, transistors to encryption technology for transmission of data. The study has been published in Nature Communications

Earlier circuits on chips relied on electrons as carriers of information. However, in the coming days, photons carrying information at the speed of light will perform this task in optical circuits. The basic building blocks for such chips are quantum light sources connected with detectors and quantum fibre optic cables. 

Julian Klein, the study’s lead author said that it is a first step in making optical quantum computers. The light sources need to coupled with photon circuits for future applications to make quantum calculations based on light possible. However, the critical point is the exact controlled placement of the light sources. Quantum light sources in materials such as diamond or silicon can be created but not precisely placed in the materials. 

Physicists used a semiconductor layer, molybdenum disulfide as the initial material with a thickness of three atoms. Then they irradiated it with a beam of helium ions focused on a surface area of less than one nanometre. For generating optically active defects, molybdenum or sulfur atoms are hammered out of layer very precisely. The imperfections are traps for electron-hole pairs which emit the desired photons. The helium ion microscope at Center for Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials, Walter Schottky Institute was used for irradiating the material with accurate lateral resolution. 

Researchers from TUM, University of Bremen, Max Planck Society developed the model for describing the energy state observed at theoretical imperfections.

In future scientists want to create complex light source patterns, in two-dimensional lateral lattice structures for researching multi-exciton phenomena. This is the experimental realisation of the theory within the context of the Bose-Hubbard model, accounting for complex processes in solids. 

As the light sources have a similar underlying defect in the material they cannot be distinguished theoretically. This opens for new opportunities which are based on the quantum-mechanical principle of entanglement. Klein said that it is very much possible for the integration of quantum light sources in the photon circuits in a very elegant manner. Because of the high sensitivity, it is possible to make quantum sensors for smartphones and also make highly secure encryption technologies to transmit data. 

Journal Reference: Nature Communications

Quantum Computing Ion Trapping

Neven’s law to possibly replace Moore’s law for quantum computing processors

New disruptive technology is promising to take the power of computing to unprecedented heights. And for predicting the speed of the progress of “quantum computing” technology, Hartmut Neven, director of Quantum AI Labs of Google has given the proposal of a new rule for quantum computers that is similar to Moore’s Law which measured the progress of normal computers for more than 50 years. But the question is if “Neven’s Law” can be trusted as an actual representation of what is occurring in quantum computing and what will be the situation in the future. 

Quantum computers use physical systems for storing data unlike the normal computers which store data as electrical signals having either of 0 or 1 state. This helps in encoding information in multiple states that allows exponentially faster calculations than the normal computers. It is still in infancy and a quantum computer has not been built yet which crosses the existing supercomputers. There is some skepticism about its progress however there is also excitement now how quick the progress is occurring. Thus it would be helpful to have an idea of what can be expected from quantum computers in future. 

Moore’s law describes that the processing power of normal digital computers to double almost every two years creating exponential growth. It is named after Gordon Moore, Intel co-founder and it accurately describes the rate of increase in the transistor number which can be integrated into a silicon microchip. Moore’s law is not applicable to quantum computers as they are designed differently on basis of laws of quantum physics. This is where Neven’s law states that quantum computing power is experiencing doubly exponential growth relative to normal computing.

Doubly exponential growth increases in powers of powers of two: 2^2 (4), 2^4 (16), 2^8 (256), 2^16 (65,536) and so on. If this was applicable to normal computers in Moore’s law, then smartphones and computers would have been present by 1975. Neven hopes that this fast pace should lead to quantum advantage where the smaller quantum processors overtake the highly powerful supercomputers. 

Neven said that researchers at Google can decrease the error rate in the prototypes of quantum computers, allowing them to build more complex and powerful machines with every iteration. This progress is exponential however a quantum processor is exponentially better than a normal processor of the same size. Reason being a quantum effect called entanglement allows various computational tasks to be performed at the same time creating exponential rates. Hence, quantum processors developing at an exponential rate and being exponentially faster than normal processors makes them develop at a doubly exponential rate than the classical processors. 

Although this is exciting, the Neven’s rule is based on a small number of prototypes where progress has been measured in a small period of time. So several data points can be taken which fits other growth patterns. There is also the issue that as quantum processors become more powerful, the small technical problems get much larger. The minor electrical noise in quantum computers leading to errors could grow in frequency as the complexity of the processor grows. This could be solved by using error correction protocols, where many backup hardwares have to be added to the redundant processor. Hence the computer would have to be much more complex without gaining any extra power. This could impact Neven’s rule.

Moore’s law foresaw the progress of normal computing for a time period of 50 years without being a fundamental natural law. It allowed the microchip industry to adopt roadmaps for developing regular milestones, assess investment and evaluate revenues. If Neven’s rule becomes as prophetic as Moore’s law it will have ramifications more than the prediction of quantum computing performance. We do not know yet about the commercialisation of quantum computers, however, this can be quickly known if Neven’s law holds true. 

single atomic layer graphite

Researchers discover quantum phenomenon to understand fundamental limits of graphene electronics

Scientists from the University of Manchester, Nottingham and Loughborough have discovered a quantum phenomenon for understanding the fundamental limits of graphene electronics. It describes the way electrons in one atomic-thin sheet of graphene scatter the vibrating carbon atoms that make the hexagonal crystal lattice. The study has been published in Nature Communications.

Applying magnetic field perpendicular to graphene plane, current-carrying electrons are forced to move in the “cyclotron orbits” which are closed and circular. In pure graphene, electrons escape from the orbit by bouncing off “phonon” while scattering. Phonons are particle-like bundles of momentum and energy and are “quanta” of sound waves that are associated with vibrating carbon atom. When graphene crystal is warmed from very low temperature, they are generated in large numbers.

The team passed a small electric current through graphene sheet for precisely measuring the amount of momentum and energy which is transferred between electron and phonon while scattering. It revealed that two kinds of phonons scatter electrons, transverse acoustic (TA) phonons where carbon atoms vibrate perpendicular to the direction in which phonon propagates and wave motion and longitudinal acoustic phonons (LA) where carbon atoms vibrate in the direction of phonon and wave motion. These accurately measure the speeds of two kinds of phonons which is difficult to make in a single atomic layer. It also shows that TA phonon scattering dominates LA phonon scattering.

This phenomenon is termed as magnetophonon oscillation and it was measured in many semiconductors several years before graphene was discovered. It has been known longer than the quantum Hall effect and is one of the oldest quantum transport phenomena.

Roshan Krishna Kumar and Laurence Eaves, co-authors in the work said that they were surprised to discover such magnetophonon oscillations in graphene and at the same time confused why it had not been discovered before in graphene. It had two key requirements. Scientists had to fabricate high-quality transistors of graphene having large areas at National Graphene Institute. It had not been discovered if the device dimensions were smaller than a few micrometers. 

Piranavan Kumaravadivel, University of Manchester and lead author of the paper said that macroscopic, millimeter-sized crystals were studied at the beginning of quantum transport experiments. The studied devices in most work on quantum transport on graphene are normally a few micrometers in size. Larger graphene devices are important for both applications and fundamental studies. 

The next ingredient is temperature. Graphene quantum transport experiments are carried out at ultra-cold temperatures for slowing the carbon atoms which are vibrating and “freeze-out” the phonons which break quantum coherence. So graphene is warmed so that phonons are active to cause the effect.

Mark Greenaway, Loughborough University who also worked on the quantum theory of this effect said that the result is quite exciting as it opens a new route for understanding the phonon properties in two-dimensional crystals and heterostructures. It will also help to understand electron-phonon interactions in promising materials which is vital for new devices and applications.

Research Paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11379-3

Quantum Entanglement Image

Researchers reveal the first ever image of quantum entanglement

Scientists for the first time have managed to capture the first actual photo of quantum entanglement in the world. This phenomenon was so strange that Albert Einstein described it as a spooky action at a distance. This study has been published in the journal Science Advances.

This breathtaking image was captured by the scientists at the University of Glasgow in Scotland. From an aesthetic point of view, it may not look much however if it is looked at this way that this grey image is the first time we have observed the particle interaction that forms the cornerstone of quantum computing and underpins the odd science of quantum mechanics, then it is indeed very special.

Quantum entanglement takes place when two particles are so closely linked that they cannot be separated and whatever happens to one of the particles affects the other one spontaneously, irrespective of the distance between them. Thus it was described as “a spooky action at a distance“. 

This image shows entanglement between two photons. They interacted for a short period of time sharing the physical states. Paul-Antoine Moreau, the first author of this paper said that the image demonstrated a very fundamental property of nature. For capturing the photo, the team of researchers made a system which blasted streams of photons entangled with each other at non-conventional objects. Then they split up the entangled photons and passed one of the beams through a liquid crystal object called β-Barium Borate, that triggered four phase transitions. They also took the photos of the entangled pair of photons simultaneously which were going through the phase transitions, although they did not pass through the liquid crystal. The camera managed to capture the images which showed that they shifted in the same direction even though they had already split up. Thus, in other words, they were entangled. 

Although Albert Einstein made quantum entanglement very famous all around the globe, it was another physicist named John Stewart Bell who actually defined quantum entanglement and also established a test known as “Bell Inequality”. True quantum entanglement can be confirmed if it is possible to break the Bell Inequality. 

The team mentioned in their report that in their experiment they were able to demonstrate the violation of Bell Inequality in the captured images. Thus one hand it opens up to new schemes of quantum imaging and it also promises possibilities of quantum information schemes based on spatial variables.