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Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

The Future of Computing and Artificial Intelligence

The advent of computers propelled society and spurred into action a lot of businesses and industries that would otherwise have been impossible. Computers and computer technology changed the way humans worked and functioned. The very first computer was a behemoth. Today, everything that you need is available on the computer through the internet and even the most complex computations can be carried out by these modern wonders. But, what does the future have in store for these computers? Are there any more frontiers that these brilliant systems need to face and overcome, and as a result, become even more powerful computationally? Let’s find out.

Computers are already ubiquitous, but, they possess the ability to enhance their presence even more. Computers are on desks and countertops, in bags and pockets, but, soon, they might be a part of everything imaginable. Yes, everything conceivable, even the tiniest of devices and commodities, might soon have computers embedded within them. There is an increasing demand for products that can carry out the computations that they need on their own and this has led to the need for devices that have computers embedded in them.

Some people perceive the final goal of computers to be that of ensuring that computers are inextricable from society and human life. Computers would be so involved in every process that the very thought of its non-existence would make life impossible! The aim is to ensure that computers are entangled with human life in such a way that computers would be indistinguishable from human life.

The notion going around that the future of computing is limited to Artificial Intelligence is incorrect. Artificial Intelligence is still burgeoning and is expected to be an essential part of day-to-day life, but, the future of computing is not limited to just Artificial Intelligence, there is much more to computing.

Artificial Intelligence


Image Source: Mike MacKenzie (Flickr)

The first challenge involved with Artificial Intelligence is the definition of intelligence. Intelligence has long been considered to be subjective and each person’s interpretation and definition of intelligence is generally different. Is a machine intelligent if it is able to communicate? Is it intelligent if it is able to learn? Or, is it intelligent if it can merely solve problems? One way to measure intelligence is through processing power. Machines can potentially gain computing powers that are greater than the processing power of all human beings put together. This situation is termed as the Singularity. The term was coined by John von Neumann and refers to the point when human affairs would cease, and computers would completely take over.

Potential threats

The low-end repetitive tasks have already been replaced by computing systems that automate it. The need for automation has made it imperative that we develop the computing potentials of computers. But, this growth has already caused a lot of concerns. There are several concerns over whether machines would someday surpass human intelligence. Currently, human intelligence, based on processing power, is considered to be 100,000 times more than that of the most powerful processing computer. But, it is estimated that computers can reach the processing power of humans within the next decade, at the rate of growth they are showing. By 2050, it is estimated that they would have processing power that is more than the sum total of all human brains combined. That is a scary thought indeed.

So, computers can take away our jobs and surpass our intelligence, what does that suggest? Is the world doomed? Not quite. Although one cannot quite rule out world domination by super intelligent computers and artificial intelligence, it is unlikely to happen due to the complexity brake. Scientists argue that computers and systems cannot grow to gain such super intelligence because as the processing power grows, the complexity increases and the complexity would reach a level that would restrain the growth of intelligence. Even if computers somehow broke free from the shackles of the complexity break, it is hypothesized that there would be enough ‘obedient’ intelligent systems that would keep the ‘misbehaving’ ones in check.

Let’s now get back to defining artificial intelligence. Since intelligence cannot be quantifiable, a generalist definition of artificial intelligence would be “machines and computers that carry out computations and tasks that would otherwise be carried out by humans”. This definition clearly does not capture the whole picture, but, is a reasonable attempt at defining A.I.

Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

The evolution of artificial intelligence can be viewed with regards to the forms of problems that it intended on solving. The early works in artificial intelligence focused on formal tasks, such as game playing and theorem proving. Checkers playing programs and chess playing algorithms were the earliest works in the field. Theorem provers such as the ‘The Logic Theorist’ aimed at solving theorems.


Image Source: Pixabay

A.I. then began to be implemented in solving common sense reasoning problems. A.I. was used to simulate the human ability to make presumptions about everyday activities. Reasoning about physical objects and their relationships, and about actions and their consequences were the problems that came under this field.

When A.I. began to grow, it started being built for perception problems. These problems were especially difficult because they involve analog data such as speech and vision.

A.I. is now being used for natural language understanding and natural language processing. Humans possess the ability to communicate through expressions and languages. Perceiving the languages and various constructs of the languages and being able to process them, are all problems that A.I. was created to solve. These fields are still not fully developed, but, systems that carry out natural language processing with a high degree of accuracy are already in place.

A.I. is now being used in tasks where human experts are needed. These tasks, such as engineering design, scientific discovery, medical diagnosis and financial planning are being carried out using artificial intelligence with a great degree of accuracy and precision. Expert systems are computer systems that use inferences and knowledge bases to mimic the decision making ability of human experts.

Domains of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence consists of countless domains. It would be highly improbable to list all of them. Here are some of the interesting domains of Artificial Intelligence:


Heuristic techniques involve finding approximate solutions to problems instead of accurate ones. Heuristic techniques are generally used when the time for computing the solutions is restricted or when it is computationally too expensive to look for the global optimal solution.

Statistical reasoning

This form of reasoning involves using probabilities and probabilistic theorems to determine most likely occurrences. Logical rules based on probabilities are created to determine what event is more likely to occur, given certain conditions.

Natural language understanding and processing

Natural language understanding involves the interpretation of natural language spoken by humans. Natural language processing, on the other hand, involves both interpretation and generation of natural language spoken by humans.

Expert systems

Expert systems are involved in carrying out tasks that would otherwise require human experts. These systems use inferences, which, are generally if-then rules, and the knowledge of previous problems and inferences derived from these previous problems, to provide solutions to the problem at hand.

Fuzzy logic systems

Fuzzy logic systems remove the notion of crisp boundaries and use fuzzy sets instead of crisp sets. In fuzzy logic, everything is viewed in terms of degree of membership. The hotness of a day is generally not quantifiable, but, fuzzy logic aims to quantify such occurrences using the concept of membership degrees. A temperature of 45°C, which, most people would perceive to be hot, could, therefore, belong to a set called ‘Cold’ to a certain degree (a small membership value) and to a set called ‘Hot’ to a certain degree (large membership value).

Genetic algorithms

Genetic algorithms aim to mimic the biological behavior of human beings and animals to solve problems. Artificial Neural Networks have been widely used in the computation. These networks consist of nodes that are intricately interconnected just like the human neural networks. Outputs at each layer of a network is propagated to the next layer. This system is used to solve a lot of complex problems. Ant colony optimization is one of the areas of genetic algorithms, where actual ant colonies are mimicked to solve problems such as finding the shortest paths.

Evaluation of artificial intelligence: Turing test

Turing test


Turing Test Illustration. Image Source: Wikipedia

Alan Turing hypothesized that a computer can achieve intelligence equivalent to that of a human being, or at least, intelligence that is indistinguishable from human intelligence if it could successfully lead a human being to believe that the machine was human. The Turing test is renowned for being the basis for classifying machine as either intelligent or not intelligent.

The Turing test involves a human evaluator who is responsible for determining which of the two entities he is talking to is actually human. The evaluator is allowed to ask a series of questions to carry out this classification. These questions are asked to both the human being and the machine. If the human evaluator fails to determine which one is human, and which one is a machine, based on the responses, then, the machine is said to have successfully fooled the evaluator and is deemed to be intelligent.

The Turing test is said to have set the benchmark for evaluating systems that may be intelligent.

The CEO of SoftBank, which, is a Japanese conglomerate, Masayoshi Son, once said, “I believe this artificial intelligence is going to be our partner. If we misuse it, it will be a risk. If we use it right, it will be our partner”. It is absolutely imperative that we tread carefully in matters pertaining to artificial intelligence. It is important to ensure that humans do not lose control over artificial intelligence. The result of losing control can be catastrophic. There is a need to impose regulations that prevent detrimental outcomes due to the development of artificial intelligence. The field of artificial intelligence has immense capabilities and should be allowed to grow, under regulated circumstances. Artificial intelligence need not have sinister outcomes. It is the responsibility of humanity to monitor A.I. and let it grow.

Read More:

  1. A Technical Overview of AI & ML (NLP, Computer Vision, Reinforcement Learning) in 2018 & Trends for 2019
  2. Bill Gates: These breakthrough technologies are going to profoundly change the world
How Will Self Driving Cars Change the Way People Live

How Will Self-Driving Cars Change the Way People Live?

Cars have changed our lives for the better in all sorts of unforeseen ways. Indeed they bestowed upon us with a lot of freedom but in return levied upon us heavy costs. Drivers commuting daily generally count their lucky stars before going out for the day. Accidents on road, pollution, congestion, etc. are the heavy costs that all drivers have to pay at least once in their lifetime. Hence, comes the new era of self- driving cars. These can change the whole scenario of driving. According to WHO, cars are the leading cause of death from ages 15-29. 20 million to 50 million people get injured due to these accidents. Self-driving cars can reduce these numbers drastically. Nowadays due to our smartphone generation, we are constantly distracted. Self-driving cars would let drivers ride even while using our gadgets behind the wheel.

Are self-driving cars safe?

Google has already launched videos in 2009 and 2014 about helping people with disabilities to drive. Blind and elderly people could easily drive in cars now. How much easier it would make their lives!

Waymo, the self-driving car remains the clear leader of such cars on U.S. streets. Now there square measure dozens of autonomous vehicle firms testing on U.S. streets. Over subsequent few months, Waymo’s fleet began driving regarding twenty 5000 self-driven miles per day, or 1,000,000 miles per month.

In the last year 2018, Waymo hit another major milestone of eight million self-driven miles as its new electrical panther I-Paces vehicle hit the streets.

Google's Waymo self driving car

Google’s Waymo Self-driving Car. Image Source: smoothgroover22 (Flickr)

The next most skilled firms, Uber and gram Cruise, square measure still many million miles behind Waymo.

That doesn’t embody miles driven within the semi-autonomous modes that several cars currently supply, like Tesla’s Autopilot, that square measure a lot of driver-assistance systems than true self-driving vehicles.

In the previous few years, the best strides taken within the self-driving business are by ride-hailing firms, WHO square measure devoting Associate in the nursing exceptional quantity of your time and cash to develop their own proprietary technologies and, in several cases, giving members of the general public rides in their vehicles.

In 2017, Lyft’s business executive foretold that at intervals 5 years, all their vehicles are going to be autonomous.

At a news conference in March 2018, wherever Waymo’s business executive John Krafcik proclaimed its ride-hailing program. Krafcik claimed that the corporations are going to be creating a minimum of 1,000,000 journeys per day by 2020.

Autonomous cars could take away certain jobs of taxi-drivers, truckers, etc. But on the bright side, it will keep us safer on the road as so many new companies are setting out on the road, quite literally, to bring this gear shift on the way.

Benefits of self-driving cars

With car crashes increasing every day on the road, self- driving cars are making their mark on the road more in the very near future.

Listed below are some of the many self-driving cars’ benefits:-

  1. Road safety

According to the government, drivers pose a threat in 94% of crashes. So instead of that, self-driving cars can reduce driver error. It can potentially reduce risks and dangers considerably, securing human lives and reducing accidents.

road safety self driving cars

Image Source: Frank Derks (Flickr)

Drivers behind the wheel are often drunk, drugged, unbelted, speeding or distracted. This’ll be the greatest promise to reduce the repercussions for such incidents.

  1. Independent driving

Disabled people like the blind can now lead self-sufficient lives however they want to. Senior citizens can also be greatly benefited from this. Car-pooling of such vehicles can also reduce great costs providing such services to every household.

  1. Cost-effective

With medical bills we are having to pay off with increasing pollution and car crashes and other injuries, self-driving cars serve as a boon in cutting off so much of medical expenses and hospital bills. Not to mention the amount of work time we would lose if we were bed-ridden. On top of that the cost of repairing the damaged vehicle. Hence, these cars are helping us save up so much and also reduce the costs of insurance well over time.

  1. Increase productivity

Self-driving cars can enable us to watch movies, create presentations or even write documents while driving. We don’t even have to worry about parking because the vehicle parks itself upon reaching a particular destination, be it an airport or a shopping mall. We could do our jobs and respond to emails without the worry of paying attention to the road or crashing or running red lights.

  1. Reduce road traffic

Automated vehicles could reduce the mistakes caused by drivers on roads which leads to road congestion and thereby an increase in traffic. Intelligent vehicles as such are programmed to maintain a safe and consistent distance between two vehicles. This reduces the number of stop-and-go traffics that increase confusion and congestion.

  1. Greener future

When traffic jams are reduced and the roads are considerably less congested, it would mean no more idling of vehicles on the road emitting greenhouse gases. It would save so much of fuel and would pave the way for a less-polluted greener and cleaner future.

Greater demand for electric vehicles might be felt and even car-sharing. When electric, i.e, battery-powered vehicles are shared, the cost of battery usage could be shared too. Hence the vehicle can be used for more hours of the day because that would mean more commuting at less cost. This will increase the economic appeal of self-driving cars.

  1. Save more space

Self-driving vehicles could pave the way for a smarter future in the sense that they will affect in the building of cities and the infrastructure of smarter designs of roads and parking spaces. In our day to day parking, it creates a lot of hassle in selecting a parking spot, checking the space in between the vehicles and then parking our vehicle with adequate space between them. Self-driving cars will be programmed to negate such hassle and calculate the distance by themselves and then park accordingly. Estimations point out that this can be done saving 15% less space which will result in saving way more space for more efficient commuting and parking in all urban areas all around the globe.

  1. Saving time

Each driver in urban areas is estimated to spend around 27 minutes extra in commuting in the US. With self-driving cars out on the road, this could save well up to an hour, if not more each day. The time which they can devote to their well-being and even boost the economy and other benefits that lead to a more efficient life.

These are some of the numerous self-driving cars’ benefits.

Self-driving cars future

While talking about the future of these wonderful cars, there are countless wonders and expectations and possibilities to come true. Johann Jungwirth of Volkswagen says that restaurants might cover the cost of travel for certain customers to boost up their sales. Fancy ones could advertise these vehicles as part of their meals too. In-vehicle advertising would sky-rocket taking the help of ride-hailing networks such as Ola, Uber, etc. riders can choose between expensive ones or cheaper along with the offers that come with them.

Other avenues of comfort will be opened up to people such as letting us work out in the gym with our trainer for a quick while on our way to work or call a make-up artist or a hairdresser on our way home.

Toyota has already designed e-Palette vehicles which are kits that can be delivered to offices, salons, parlors, shops, etc. These vehicles will modify our entire social lives by merging groups of people with similar interests while assigning rides, which means much more fun while even commuting! Dating apps could take up this advantage and pair up people with similar interests out for a ride on the way to the date or even long drives. Self-driving vehicles might also serve as a mobile hotel while out for a trip. Spacious ones, of course.

Wrapping UP!

From the sci-fi movies featuring robot cars, who knew they would become a reality someday? In the past five years, driving has become smarter and smarter with each new innovative design to the existing models. From Bluetooth to remote lock and now driverless cars! Keeping human safety the utmost priority these vehicles will venture out on the road in greater numbers making our lives easier and our traveling hassle free.

No doubt, every new technology, and invention come with its own pros and cons but these vehicles are mostly targeted in making our lives easier, connecting more people socially and professionally. Once these self-driving vehicles are economically affordable to the regular folks, these will sweep over our roads in no time.

In answer to the question will these vehicles change our lives for the better? Yes, they will. Commute will become cheaper and less of a drag. People will no longer have to worry about traffic or finding a parking spot. Like most technologies, these vehicles will surely channel the best in us and pave the way for a promising future ahead.

10 Science Experiments that went Horribly Wrong

10 Science Experiments that went Horribly Wrong

Top 10 Science Experiments That Went Horribly Wrong and produce

While science has the ability to enhance our lives and cure illness, it also can be accustomed to torture, murder, and brainwashing. Science may be a force permanently in our world, risking lives of individuals all across Earth in immeasurable ways in which. However, it’s conjointly an awfully powerful tool which will become dangerous in some things. Particularly once it gets entangled in politics. At alternative times, science’s inherent ambition to push boundaries of what notable can even cause some heart-stopping moments.
The following list is in no method thoroughgoing however provides the North American nation with an area to begin once pondering the intense responsibility that comes with the march of science. Here are ten shivery experiments that destroyed lives, or have the potential to unleash doomsday:-

  1. Elephant on meth

45 years before now, scientists conducted a cruel experiment to look at. However, the elephant would react to being given massive doses of a hallucinogenic drug. The elephant weighed 3 and a 0.5 tons and was administered enough hallucinogenic drug to create 3,000 humans perceive. The elephant was referred to as Trusko. Researchers from the University of Oklahoma injected him with the drug and he instantly began to panic and stampeded around his pen for many minutes, then folded. It’s probably the medication killed, however, some theorize the medication the scientists accustomed tries to revive might have contributed to his death. The researchers were making an attempt to force the elephant to travel into phase.

  1. Edison’s lethal mistake

Edison worked on several experiments throughout his life; however, this is often one he’ll always remember. Carriage Dally associate degree Yankee glass-blower and inventor assistant whereas he was researching and experimenting with X-rays. The inventor was unaware of the risks and innocently experimented on the carriage. In 1895 carriage was poisoned by the consequences of the X-ray. In 1900 carriage was suffering radiation harm to his hands and face, and had to go away work. All of Clarence’s multiple treatments were unsuccessful; carriage lost his menus and eventually died of healthful Cancer. The inventor then abandoned his work on X-ray, and refused to speak concerning it voice communication, “Don’t sit down with American state concerning X-rays, I’m frightened of them.”

  1. Doctor’s insane studies

Ffirth was a novice doctor known for his insane method of finding out yellow fever. Whereas treating patients throughout a plague of yellow fever he detected there have been abundant fewer infections throughout the winter. In reality, this is often a result of the illness is unfold by mosquitoes that hibernate throughout weather. Firth didn’t understand this and set it absolutely was as a result of the illness wasn’t contagious.

To prove this he visited nice lengths, he tried to require infecting himself with yellow jack in any method attainable. He drank the vomit of the victims, injected it into his body, poured it into his eyes, and breathed within the fumes. This gave the impression toprove the illness isn’t contagious however sadly; he solely dodged infection as a result of vomit he used was from patients within the late stage of the illness that isn’t contagious.

  1. Stanford Prison Experiment

The Stanford jail experiment employed twenty-two male school students for per week and got them to require half during a psychological experiment. [*fr1] the scholars were arbitrarily allotted as prisoners and therefore the spouse as guards. The guards were taken to the jail daily before the experiment began to spot their uniforms, and set the place up. This created the guards feel as if they closely-held the jail. The prisoners were told to remain reception until somebody came to choose them up. They were then picked up and in remission by the police in a variety of all their neighbours and transported to the jail. The guards might run the jail anyway they needed and there weren’t any rules the least bit relating to the treatment of the prisoners.

On a primary day, nothing very happened and therefore the experiment was nearly known as off. Following morning the prisons started acting up and making an attempt to revolt. The guards set to do and keep them in line, they force prisoners out of their cells, stripped them naked, and so tied their feet up. The guards perceived to become utterly completely different folks when solely daily of power. They treated the prisoners cruelly and told them that food, and water was privileging whereas thinking of the many artistic ways that to psychologically torture them. Several of the prisoners had complete mental breakdowns, those that didn’t become zombies, senselessly obeying and repetition what the guards told them. The experiment had to be reduced for the prisoners’ safety.

  1. Sketchy Biosphere

In 1991 five scientists lived in isolation in an exceedingly independent region referred to as region two. They created an enormous facility, over three acres, and also thescientists would grow their own crops and plants. The ability was fully airtight, and most of the O came from flora. The experiment was extremely promulgated and also the participants became celebrities for a short while before they entered the ability.

Barely any footage was shown of the experiment however part way through one person had to go away as a result of that they had accidentally cut themselves, and so came carrying a duffle of what individuals speculated were provides. This ruined the validity of the take a look at for plenty of individuals. Individuals additionallydetected that they deceitfully used a greenhouse emission scrubber. Most of the participants it clad had very little tutorial coaching. Eventually, it lost all quality and even was placed on a listing of the one hundred worst experiments of the century.

  1. Pit of Doom

Psychologist Harry Harlean Carpenter evoked emotional disorder in monkeys by taking young macaques that had secure with their mother and inserting them in complete isolation, in an exceedingly darkened cage, for up to 10 weeks. At intervals some days, they became psychotic, and most couldn’t be treated.

  1. Deadly Drug trials

In 2007, drug trials started for THN1412, a cancer of the blood treatment. It had been tested antecedently in animals and was found fully safe. Generally, a drug is deemed safe to check on humans once it’s found to be nonlethal to animals. Once testing began in human subjects, the humans got doses five hundred times under found safe for animals. Even so, this drug, safe for animals, caused harmful organ failure to take a look at subjects. Here the distinction between animals and humans was deadly.

  1. Shock experiments

The disreputable “shock” experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram within theSixties showed simply, however, way folks would go once ordered to harm someone else by Associate in nursing authority. The well-known psychological study brought in volunteers World Health Organization thought they were collaborating in Associate in nursing experiment wherever they’d deliver shocks to a different take a look at the subject. A doctor requested that they deliver larger and larger shocks; even once the “test subject” began to scream in pain and (in some cases) die.

In reality, the experiment was to examine however tractable folks would be once a doctor told them to try to one thing that was clearly horrific and probably fatal. Severalparticipants within the experiments were willing to shock the “test subjects” (actors employed by Milgram) until they believed those subjects were injured or dead. Later, several participants claimed they were traumatized always when discovering that they were capable of such insensate behaviour.

  1. Freud’s diagnosis

In the late nineteenth century, Eckstein came to Freud to be treated for a nervous unhealthiness. He diagnosed her with hysteria and excessive masturbation. His friend WillhelmFleis believed that hysteria and excessive masturbation may be treated by cauterizing the nose, thus he performed associate degree operation on Eckstein wherever he primarily burned her nasal passages. She suffered horrific infections and was left for good ugly as Fleiss had left surgical gauze in her nasal passage. Alternativeladies suffered through similar experiments.

  1. Operation Cirrus

In the late Forties, the U.S. tried to divert the trail of hurricanes by seeding the storms with solid. When scientists poured one hundred eighty pounds of solid into a cyclonemoving east into the Atlantic Ocean, the cyclone created an especially unpredictable move — and adjusted directions. The cyclone collided with the city of Savannah, Georgia — no trespasser to uncommon government intrusions, killing a minimum of one person and inflicting over $200 million in injury.


Disturbing human experiments aren’t one thing the common person thinks an excessive amount of concern. Rather, the progress achieved within the last Associate in Nursing fifty years of human history is an accomplishment we’re reminded of virtually daily. Achievements created in fields like biomedicine and psychological science mean that we tend to not got to worry concerning things like deadly diseases or autoerotism a style of mental illness. For higher or worse, we’ve got developed simpler ways that to assemble info, treat skin abnormalities, and even kill one another. However what we tend to don’t seem to be perpetually reminded of area unit the human lives that are broken or lost within the name of this progress.

Alan Turing Aged 16

Breaking the Enigma: Alan Turing and the Turing Machine

Very rarely do you find individuals that change the course of history purely through sheer brilliance. But, when you do find such individuals it is imperative to celebrate them. These individuals tend to produce magnificence through brilliance so effortlessly and with such fluency that it is hard not to remain awestruck. Alan Turing was one such individual. Alan Turing is the man who formulated many of the theoretical concepts that have enabled modern computation. He is widely regarded as the father of computer science, and, rightfully so.

About Alan Turing

Alan Turing was an English mathematician and cryptanalyst whose work in breaking the Enigma code and work in the development of computer science gained him a lot of recognition. He is also credited as being the father of Artificial Intelligence, which, is an exciting and promising field. He studied at King’s College, Cambridge and was widely considered to possess brilliance that was far beyond his age.


Turing Machine

Turing machine is a hypothetical simplistic machine that was created by Alan Turing as a solution to the decision problem. The simplicity of the Turing machine made it a phenomenon. The field of computer science was still in its initial stages and was a burgeoning field and the role of the Turing machine in its growth cannot be overstated. The contribution of the Turing machine was immense in the development and acceptance of computer science.

A Turing machine consists of an infinitely long memory tape that contains input characters or symbols. Upon reading a character on the memory tape, the state of the machine could change. There were operations such as read, write or modify that could be carried out on the tape. There also existed a set of rules that defined what would happen for a particular state and input symbol. These rules specified the effect of the character read from the tape on the current state. Each memory tape had a head. The head was responsible for carrying out either the operation of read, or, that of write. This head could also be moved either to the left or to the right.

This seems simple, right? This is where the beauty of the system lies. Without being overly complicated, the Turing machine had the potential of solving any problem. Alan Turing stated that this machine could solve any computational problem, given enough time and memory. This simplistic machine could solve everything!


An Enigma decryption machine called a “bombe.” This machine, made by National Cash Register of Dayton, Ohio, eliminated all possible encryptions from intercepted messages until it arrived at the correct solution. (U.S. Air Force photo)

Therefore, the Turing machine provided the basis for computational studies. In terms of solving computational problems, there is no computer more powerful than the Turing machine. Any computer that is considered to be as powerful as the Turing machine is considered to be Turing complete. Every modern computing system is considered to be Turing complete.

To answer the decision problem, Turing proposed a puzzle that is renowned as the halting problem. This problem aims to figure out whether there exists an algorithm that can determine if the machine will keep running, or, halt, given the input tape and description of the Turing machine.

This halting problem can be used to determine whether computer programs would halt or continue perpetually. Alan Turing was successful in proving that the halting problem was in fact unsolvable. Consider a Turing machine that takes the description of a program and certain inputs for its memory tape. Also, consider the output for this machine to be either Yes if the program halts or No if the program fails to cease. Now consider another Turing machine that is built on top of this machine. Now, if the output of the first Turing machine is Yes, which means that the program halts, then, we make the second machine run in an infinite loop. If the output of the first Turing machine is No, which means the program does not halt, then, we make the second machine output No and halt.

If you have followed carefully, you will notice that the second Turing machine does the exact opposite of the first one. Consider the combination of these machines as a single unified machine. Let’s call this machine, Alan. Now if we pass the description of the unified machine, Alan, as input to the same machine, Alan, then we are asking the system to evaluate itself. If the first Turing machine in Alan outputs Yes, the second machine goes into an infinite loop and it does not halt. If the first machine outputs No, the second machine halts.

So, the first machine cannot determine the solution to this problem. It results in a paradox. Since Turing proved that all computational problems can be solved on the Turing machine, the fact that this problem cannot be solved on it means that the problem does not have a solution. He, therefore, proved through contradiction that the halting problem is not solvable. By showing that the halting problem was not solvable, he proved that the decision problem had no solutions.

You may ask, what is the decision problem? Decision problem was put forth by David Hilbert. The problem asks for an algorithm that takes a sentence of first-order logic as input and produces either a Yes or a No according to whether the statement is universally valid or not.

Alonzo Church also proved that the decision problem had no solutions through his lambda calculus. This led to the formation of the Church-Turing thesis, which, says that lambda calculus and Turing machines are capable enough to solve all computational problems that have solutions.

Breaking the Enigma

Turing played a pivotal part in the Second World War in deciphering German codes that were created through the Enigma machine. This machine scrambled any text and transmitted the scrambled text. This scrambling was carried out by the Germans to ensure that nobody intercepts and understands their messages. The scrambling was not random, it was determined by the rotors of the Enigma machine, which meant that it could be descrambled on another Enigma machine. Thus, the Germans would transmit messages encrypted by one Enigma machine and receive messages decrypted by the receiving Enigma machine. The challenge for Turing was to crack the Enigma and understand the rotor configurations.

Alan Turing came up with the Bombe, which, was an enhancement of the Polish code breaking system that aimed to crack Enigma codes. Bombe predicted rotor settings of the Enigma machine more effectively than any other system. The Germans would periodically update the Enigma machine and add rotors to ensure that codes were not being encrypted by anyone else. Turing and his colleagues worked tirelessly to break this code and were appreciated for potentially reducing the duration of the war by several years.

Turing Test

Perhaps, the most promising contribution of Alan Turing was his contribution to Artificial Intelligence. Turing hypothesized that a computer can achieve intelligence equivalent to that of a human being, or at least, intelligence that is indistinguishable from human intelligence if it could successfully lead a human being to believe that the machine was human. The Turing test is renowned for being the basis for classifying machine as either intelligent or not intelligent.

The Turing test involves a human evaluator who is responsible for determining which of the two entities he is talking to is actually human. The evaluator is allowed to ask a series of questions to carry out this classification. These questions are asked to both the human being and the machine. If the human evaluator fails to determine which one is human, and which one is a machine, based on the responses, then, the machine is said to have successfully fooled the evaluator and is deemed to be intelligent.

Controversy regarding Alan Turing

Sadly, the greatness of this brilliant individual was marred with controversy. Alan Turing was homosexual in a time when homosexuality in the United Kingdom was illegal. When he was convicted of these charges, he was given the option of either imprisonment or chemical castration. He chose chemical castration so that he could continue his academic work. As a result, he spent much of his post-war life unable to conform to the changes that resulted in him due to chemical castration. He, unfortunately, took his own life at a very young age of 41.

Artificial Intelligence

The gift of Artificial Intelligence was provided to us by Alan Turing. Artificial Intelligence has shown immense potential and could soon be incorporated into everyday systems. Although one could say that Artificial Intelligence is still only a burgeoning field, the accomplishments of Artificial Intelligence are already so significant that it would be foolish to not consider it to be a powerful aspect of society in the not so distant future.

The genius, Alan Turing once said, “We can only see a short distance ahead, but we can see plenty there that needs to be done”. Alan Turing had tremendous dedication towards his work. He was even willing to undergo chemical castration to be able to continue with his academic work. That was the dedication that the man possessed.

There probably are not enough adjectives to describe the brilliance that Alan Turing possessed. Then again, it probably would be an injustice to the great man to express appreciation towards his intelligence through mere words. The potential the man possessed could not be, nay, should not be described through mere words constrained by the vocabulary. It is tragic how his story unfolded, but, his contributions to the field of computer science and artificial intelligence will forever live on. He was truly a rare gem.

optical storage

This tiny 5d disc can store 360 TB of data for 13.8 billion years

Today’s massive amounts of digital data have caused researchers worldwide to develop data storage technologies, such as DNA-based storage, that are meant to be capable of keeping data for the longest possible time.

Now, a new mini disc developed by researchers in the United Kingdom is said to be able to store up to 300 terabytes worth of information for billions of years without suffering any deterioration of its digital contents.
Using nanostructured glass, scientists from the University’s Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) have developed the recording and retrieval processes of five dimensional (5D) digital data by femtosecond laser writing.

The storage allows unprecedented properties including 360 TB/disc data capacity, thermal stability up to 1,000°C and virtually unlimited lifetime at room temperature (13.8 billion years at 190°C ) opening a new era of eternal data archiving. As a very stable and safe form of portable memory, the technology could be highly useful for organisations with big archives, such as national archives, museums and libraries, to preserve their information and records.

“It is thrilling to think that we have created the technology to preserve documents and information and store it in space for future generations,” said one of the researchers, Peter Kazansky. “This technology can secure the last evidence of our civilisation: all we’ve learnt will not be forgotten.”

The researchers are presenting their work at the International Society for Optical Engineering Conference in San Francisco this week, and after that, they”re hoping to find industry specialists to partner with in order to develop the technology further, finally getting it to a stage where it could be used in commercial products.


new battery technology

Accidentally created new battery technology can last 400 times longer

Researchers in the US have created a battery capable of being recharged hundreds of thousands of times without showing signs of wear, spelling a potential end to electronics rendered useless by dead cells.

The batteries of today are mainly lithium, and over time that lithium corrodes inside the battery.
Instead of lithium, researchers at UC Irvine have used gold nanowires to store electricity, and have found that their system is able to far outlast traditional lithium battery construction. The Irvine team’s system cycled through 200,000 recharges without significant corrosion or decline.

The original aim of the experiment was simply to make a solid-state battery that used an electrolyte gel rather than a liquid to hold its charge – lithium batteries contain liquid, which makes them extremely combustible and also sensitive to temperature.

But when they started experimenting with gold nanowires suspended in this electrolyte gel, they found that the system was incredibly resilient. In fact, it was way, way more resilient than any other battery system.

Watch: How batteries work

The use of nanowires, which are thousands of times thinner than human hair, highly conductive and have a large surface area, in batteries is not new.

Lithium-ion batteries, used in most smartphones, are also made up of nanowires, but they are fragile and prone to breaking after repeated charges.

As such, batteries are currently designed to withstand a certain number of “cycles” – the equivalent of a battery fully draining.

By coating the nanowires in both a shell and the gel, the US researchers managed to prevent the nanowires from growing brittle.

During testing, it withstood 200,000 charges over three months. In that time the researchers failed to notice any decline in charge capacity or damage within the battery. Regular batteries currently on the market normally die after 7,000 charges at most, the study claimed.

The study was published in the American Chemical Society’s Energy Letters on April 20.

Anatomy of eye

Thanks to a bionic eye, this woman is able to see for the first time in years

It might seem like something out of a Philip K. Dick story, but bionic eyes are no longer pure figments of writers’ imaginations! For the first time in years, a woman has been able to see again with the help of a bionic eye!

The bionic eye is an implant that works together with a pair of glasses

Carmen Torres began to lose her eyesight when she was eighteen years old because of a genetic disease called retinitis pigments which causes the patient to lose his or her eyesight over time. Torres who is now 58 years old, has been completely blind since she was 45 years old.

Last November Torres underwent surgery to have the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System installed. According to Torres’ doctor, the surgery was as one might have guessed reasonably complicated. Dr. Nina Gregori said:

It’s a meticulous technique, one that requires exact, precise measurements of where to place these components on the eye and we really took our time.”

The way the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System works is, the patient wears special glasses which are equipped with a miniature camera that captures what is being seen. The images are then deciphered by a small wearable computer, which sends the images back to the glasses and is then transmitted to the eye implant.

Torres is one of about a hundred patients worldwide who have had the surgery and the first in the state of Florida. Torres needed to learn how to understand the images which were being transmitted to her, and stated it was like learning a new language. Now, nine months later Torres has been fully rehabilitated and has said she can even see the stars when she gazes at the night sky.

Source: https://www.sciencedump.com

cicret wristband

Cicret wristband turns your arm into a touch screen

Paris based design company Cicret aims to turn your arm into a tablet device promising a great future for wearables. Coined as “a tablet on your skin”, the Cicret bracelet will project your phone onto the skin of your arm.

It will use a tiny ”pico projector” and eight miniature proximity sensors to project an image of your device screen on to your arm.

Low energy Bluetooth will communicate with your mobile device. A Wi-Fi component will connect you to the network. It will have a vibration function and a micro USB charging port.

Touching your arm with your finger will interact with the sensors and return the instructions back to the processor of the bracelet.

cicret bracelet

Image: Cicret

Flicking your wrist will turn on the display on your arm. The Cicret bracelet will be water resistant and durable. Flick, swipe, pinch and zoom functionality will be supported along with tap to text. You will even be able to answer the phone with a flick of your wrist.

Related VideoThe Cicret Bracelet: Like a tablet…but on your skin.