There are many diseases wherein one needs a donor to donate an organ, it is very difficult to get donors these days and even if you get one, it should be a perfect match. However, there are various complications that are bound to happen during the transplant. Hence, scientists are finding alternate solutions to transplant and that is nothing but growing an organ artificially and then letting it grow in the body.
It is very difficult to grow something in a laboratory as there are many factors that one has to consider, right from is it getting the proper environment to producing and also giving it the proper nutrition it requires.
After a lot of research, scientists in UK have cultivated an artificial brain in a dish and the behaviour of the brain is similar to the brain developed in humans. Scientists say that the size of the brain grown in the laboratory is similar to the size of human fetal brain at 12 to 13 weeks during which the ‘brain organoid‘ is not complex since it doesn’t have any thoughts, feelings or consciousness – but that doesn’t make it entirely inert. It is composed of two million organized neurons.
The scientists when placed this piece of brain next to a piece of mouses’ spinal cord and a piece of mouses’ muscle tissue, this pea-sized blob of human brain cells sent out long, probing tendrils to check out its new neighbours. After which, they spontaneously connected itself to nearby spinal cord and tissue. This was observed with the help of long term live microscopy.
These probings aren’t the only skills. This brain was also the first sample to initiate muscle movement. The researchers also noticed the visible and controlled muscle contraction.
Madeline Lancaster neuroscientist from the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology told The Guardian, “We like to think of them as mini-brains on the move.”
The authors mentioned, “After 2-3 weeks in co-culture, dense axon tracts could be seen innervating the mouse spinal cord and synapses were visible between human projecting axons and neurons of the mouse spinal cord. Live imaging of the mouse muscle tissue revealed sporadic concerted muscle contractions with irregular periodicity.”
Today, most brain organoids are grown from human stem cells, which spontaneously organize themselves into the structures and layers needed for early brain development. The problem is, once this cluster gets to a certain size, the middle becomes deprived of nutrients and oxygen and it stops becoming useful. Therefore the researchers sliced up the organoids and placed them on a porous membrane, the researchers made sure that their mini-brains could simultaneously use the air above and absorb the nutrients below, staying healthy after a year in their dishes.
The authors are hopeful that the success of their new approach will allow us to model brain diseases in greater detail than ever before.
The authors write, “For instance, it opens the door to the study of neurodevelopmental conditions of the corpus callosum, neuronal circuit imbalances seen in epilepsy, and other defects where connectivity is thought to play a role, such as in autism and schizophrenia.”
Published Research: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0350-2