Evidence from Large Hadron Collider reveals structure of pentaquark

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Pentaquark
A diagram of a pentaquark . The arrangement shown here is closer to the hypothesis that the quarks are tightly bound, but it may also be that there is a structure similar to a meson and a hadron together. (Credits - Wikimedia Commons)

A new structure was detected from the world’s largest particle accelerator, LHC. It was an imported particle which has five quarks bounded together commonly known as pentaquark. Quarks are the subatomic particles which make protons and neutrons bind together in either pairs or triplets to form classes of particles usually known as mesons and baryon.

Recently a data analysis done at Large Hadron Collider present in Geneva, Switzerland disclosed that there are larger aggregations present like five-quark pentaquark. Scientists are collectively getting more data on the arrangement of the odd pentaquark particles. It was also seen that baryon was bounded to a meson forming an unnatural type of ghostly molecule. The study was published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

The main job of LHC machinery is accelerating packets of protons matching the speed of light and then injecting them into pairs of magnetic circles which should intersect at four points. The particles having high energy and collide with each other resulting in the release of energy and mass in the form of particles which is unreachable to earth and detectors like LHCb stays at the collision points to record the spray of particles. With the help of this data, researchers compare with laws of physics in hope to find something not observed but were theorized before.

In the year 2015 and later confirmed in 2016, researchers noticed some pairs of peaks in their analysis of data and they were surprised to see more hits in the detector than expected. The peaks showed the existence of a collection of five quarks called pentaquarks which have a mass approximately 4.5 times of a proton but the internal structure of the particle was still unknown. After researching the data, scientists noticed another pentaquark and found that one of the pentaquarks located in 2015 was two pentaquarks close in mass by that the researchers understood that peaks were very thin which means they will be able to get high-resolution measurements of the pentaquarks mass.

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that there is a relationship between how well the energy of a particle can be measured and how well we can measure the time of decaying of particles and accordingly if the particles decay quickly then scientists wouldn’t have been able to observe skinny peaks and this explains the theory of how pentaquarks have long lifetime.

Tomasz Skwarnicki, a physics professor at Syracuse University said that according to this theory different particles are bonded together in some sort of unnatural molecules which exist only at the energies created in LHC and these are held by nuclear force and have no use on earth. They decay quickly but present at neutron stars. We can conclude that more experiments are required to completely know about the internal structure of pentaquarks.

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