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Diamond discovered in Siberia contains another diamond inside it

Diamond discovered in Siberia contains another diamond inside it

Diamonds have been mined for a very long time. However, a diamond found in Russia might be the first of its kind. It itself is hollow with another diamond moving inside it. The diamond discovered in a mine in Siberia is named the Matryoshka Diamond after the matryoshka dolls. 

It is common to find diamonds with some type of flaw or inclusion. Most diamonds have some defect or a mineral trapped inside. Some rare materials have been obtained underneath the Earth’s surface as it had been trapped in diamonds. But according to the Russian diamond mining group ALROSA, it is very new to find a diamond within a diamond. 

The Matryoshka Diamond weighs only 0.62 carats or 0.124 grams. Its dimensions are 4.8*4.9*2.8 millimeters. The inner diamond only weighs 0.02 carats with its dimensions being only 1.9*2.1*0.6 millimeters. During the sorting process, something unusual was noticed about it and then it was sent to the Research and Development Geological Enterprise of ALROSA for further assessment. Here the diamond was subjected to several processes namely Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray microtomography. 

Oleg Kovalchuk from ALROSA said that the most intriguing aspect was to understand the formation of the air space between the formation of inner and outer diamonds. Scientists have some thoughts on the processes involved in the mantle of the Earth leading to this creation. 

 According to their hypotheses, due to rapid growth, a layer of polycrystalline diamond material was formed inside the diamond was ultimately dissolved due to the mantle processes. This dissolved layer allowed a diamond to move inside another freely similar to a matryoshka nesting doll. 

The age of the diamond is estimated to be around 800 million years but this is yet to be verified. As per a Bloomberg report, it is to be sent to the Gemological Institute for America for more in-depth analysis. It is difficult to estimate the worth of it since it is so rare. 

Kovalchuk said that no such diamond has ever been obtained in the entire history of the global mining of diamonds. This is a very unique creation by the natural forces as a vacuum is not really favored by nature. Normally in such a situation, the minerals would be replaced by other substances avoiding the formation of a cavity. 

 

Diamond graphite structure

Researchers demonstrate quantum teleportation within a diamond

Researchers from the Yokohama National University have been successful in teleporting quantum information securely within the boundaries of a diamond. The implications of this study are huge in the field of quantum information technology. It defines how sensitive information can be safely shared and stored. The results of the study have been published in the journal Communications Physics

Hideo Kosaka, professor at Yokohama National University, also a co-author of the study said that the phenomenon of quantum teleportation permits the transfer of quantum information into space which cannot be normally accessed. In addition to this, it also permits the information transfer into quantum memory by not revealing or destroying the stored information. 

In the case of a diamond, this inaccessible space consisted of its carbon atoms. Since a diamond is composed of well linked, self-contained carbon atoms it has the most suitable ingredients for quantum teleportation to occur. 

In the nucleus of the carbon atom, there are six protons and six neutrons. This nucleus is surrounded by six spinning electrons. In the bonding of atoms to form a diamond a very strong lattice is formed. Although diamond can also have complex defects. When a nitrogen atom is located in one of the two adjacent vacancies where there should be a carbon atom, the defect is called a nitrogen-vacancy-center. 

When surrounded by carbon atoms, the researchers call the nucleus of a nitrogen atom a nanomagnet

For manipulation of the electron and carbon isotope in the vacancy, researchers attached a wire of the dimensions of a quarter width of a human hair to the diamond’s surface. Then the team applied a radio wave and microwave to the wire for making an oscillating magnetic field around the diamond. The microwave was manipulated for generating the optimal conditions for the transfer of quantum information in the diamond. 

Then Kosaka’s team used nitrogen nanomagnet for anchoring an electron. They forced the electron spin for entangling with a carbon nuclear spin by using radio and microwaves. The break down of the electron spin occurs under the magnetic field which has been created by the nanomagnet, making it susceptible to entanglement. 

After the entanglement of the pieces which mean that the physical characteristics cannot be described individually as they are very similar, a photon holding the quantum information is applied and is absorbed by the electron. The absorption allows the polarization state of the photon to be transferred into the carbon, which is mediated by the entangled electron, demonstrating a teleportation of information at the quantum level.

This method can take chunks of information, from one node to another in the quantum field. Researchers want to develop this method further to enable large scale quantum computation and meteorology.