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Mass of Neutrinos that has perplexed the concepts of Physics has been narrowed down

Mass of Neutrinos, the perplexing concept of Physics has been narrowed down

An enormous experiment to pin down the mass of one of the most perplexing particles in the Universe has placed a cover on how massive the neutrino really might be.

What was once considered massless, is now thought that the mass of the particle weighs no more than one electronvolt. It may not be an accurate response, but it brings us one step closer to a satisfactory solution to one of the greatest secrets of modern physics.

Neutrinos are odd. They are among the Universe’s most abundant particles, yet challenging to identify. Because of their unique characteristics, they communicate very little with ordinary matter.

Billions of neutrinos are currently zipping through your body. You can see why it’s called’ particles of the ghost.’

After years of testing of their plant in Germany, the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) test started its test campaign to calculate the resting mass of the neutrino last spring.

At a meeting in Japan earlier this month, officials produced their first batch of results.

The findings have still not been released, and while there’s a long way to go, the researchers have divided estimates that were previously considered as possible, down from the previous upper limit of around 2 electronvolts to just 1.

Unlike units of pounds and kilograms, this measurement isn’t an easy one to picture. MIT physicist Joseph Formaggio and leading member of the KATRIN experimental group suggests starting tiny and then going more diminutive.

“Each virus is made up of roughly 10 million protons,” Formaggio said to MIT News writer, Jennifer Chu.

“Each proton weighs about 2,000 times more than each electron inside that virus. And what our results proved is that the neutrino has a mass less than 1/500,000 of a single electron!”

As it happens, nobody is astounded that the base mass of a neutrino may be so inconceivably low. When they were first recommended as part of the Standard Model of particle physics, it was assumed the particles didn’t have any mass at all.

This assumption was empirically challenged during the late 1990s by the results of a landmark experiment demonstrating neutrinos streaming from the Sun changed form in a way that meant their mass couldn’t be zero.

So if it’s not zero, what is it? For more than two decades, various experiments have done their best to constrain the limits on just how big or small it might be.

The main issue is that neutrinos do not interact with other particles. The only interaction they have is with the kind of particles we build measuring tools from via the nuclear force.

“Neutrinos are strange little particles,” says physicist Peter Doe from the University of Washington.

“They’re so universal, and there’s so much we can learn once we determine this value.”

 

Pentaquark

Evidence from Large Hadron Collider reveals structure of pentaquark

A new structure was detected from the world’s largest particle accelerator, LHC. It was an imported particle which has five quarks bounded together commonly known as pentaquark. Quarks are the subatomic particles which make protons and neutrons bind together in either pairs or triplets to form classes of particles usually known as mesons and baryon.

Recently a data analysis done at Large Hadron Collider present in Geneva, Switzerland disclosed that there are larger aggregations present like five-quark pentaquark. Scientists are collectively getting more data on the arrangement of the odd pentaquark particles. It was also seen that baryon was bounded to a meson forming an unnatural type of ghostly molecule. The study was published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

The main job of LHC machinery is accelerating packets of protons matching the speed of light and then injecting them into pairs of magnetic circles which should intersect at four points. The particles having high energy and collide with each other resulting in the release of energy and mass in the form of particles which is unreachable to earth and detectors like LHCb stays at the collision points to record the spray of particles. With the help of this data, researchers compare with laws of physics in hope to find something not observed but were theorized before.

In the year 2015 and later confirmed in 2016, researchers noticed some pairs of peaks in their analysis of data and they were surprised to see more hits in the detector than expected. The peaks showed the existence of a collection of five quarks called pentaquarks which have a mass approximately 4.5 times of a proton but the internal structure of the particle was still unknown. After researching the data, scientists noticed another pentaquark and found that one of the pentaquarks located in 2015 was two pentaquarks close in mass by that the researchers understood that peaks were very thin which means they will be able to get high-resolution measurements of the pentaquarks mass.

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle states that there is a relationship between how well the energy of a particle can be measured and how well we can measure the time of decaying of particles and accordingly if the particles decay quickly then scientists wouldn’t have been able to observe skinny peaks and this explains the theory of how pentaquarks have long lifetime.

Tomasz Skwarnicki, a physics professor at Syracuse University said that according to this theory different particles are bonded together in some sort of unnatural molecules which exist only at the energies created in LHC and these are held by nuclear force and have no use on earth. They decay quickly but present at neutron stars. We can conclude that more experiments are required to completely know about the internal structure of pentaquarks.